Antibody-mediated rejection: treatment alternatives and outcomes.

  title={Antibody-mediated rejection: treatment alternatives and outcomes.},
  author={Neeraj Singh and John D. Pirsch and Millie D Samaniego},
  journal={Transplantation reviews},
  volume={23 1},
Over the past 10 years, thanks to the development of sensitive methods of antibody detection and markers of antibody injury such as C4d staining, the role of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA alloantibodies as effectors of acute and chronic immune allograft injury has been revisited. Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) defines all allograft rejection caused by antibodies directed against donor-specific HLA molecules, blood group antigen (ABO)-isoagglutinins, or endothelial cell… CONTINUE READING
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