Antibodies to MOG and AQP4 in children with neuromyelitis optica and limited forms of the disease

@article{Lechner2015AntibodiesTM,
  title={Antibodies to MOG and AQP4 in children with neuromyelitis optica and limited forms of the disease},
  author={Christian Lechner and Matthias Baumann and E. M. Hennes and Kathrin Schanda and Klaus Marquard and Michael Karenfort and Steffen Leiz and Daniela Pohl and Sunita Venkateswaran and Martin Pritsch and Johannes Koch and Mareike Schimmel and Martin G H{\"a}usler and Andrea Klein and Astrid Blaschek and Charlotte Thiels and Thomas Lücke and Ursula Gruber‐Sedlmayr and Barbara Kornek and Andreas Hahn and Frank Leypoldt and Torsten Sandrieser and H. Gallwitz and Johannes Stoffels and Christoph G. Korenke and Markus Reindl and Kevin Rost{\'a}sy},
  journal={Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery \& Psychiatry},
  year={2015},
  volume={87},
  pages={897 - 905}
}
Objective To determine the frequency and clinical-radiological associations of antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in children presenting with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and limited forms. Methods Children with a first event of NMO, recurrent (RON), bilateral ON (BON), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) or brainstem syndrome (BS) with a clinical follow-up of more than 12 months were enrolled. Serum samples were tested for MOG- and AQP4… 
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TLDR
The results show that the presence of MOG-abs strongly depends on the age at disease onset and that high Mog-ab titers were associated with a recurrent non-MS disease course.
High association of MOG-IgG antibodies in children with bilateral optic neuritis.
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Pediatric neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders in Portugal: A multicentre retrospective study.
Diagnostic algorithm for relapsing acquired demyelinating syndromes in children
TLDR
Children with multiple sclerosis and AQP4-Ab NMOSD showed features typical of adult cases and were grouped into a unified phenotype (MOG-Ab–associated disease), included in a new diagnostic algorithm.
Brainstem and cerebellar involvement in MOG-IgG-associated disorder versus aquaporin-4-IgG and MS
TLDR
Involvement of the brainstem, cerebellum or both is common in MOGAD but usually occurs as a component of a multifocal central nervous system attack rather than in isolation.
Epidemiology of Pediatric NMOSD in Germany and Austria
TLDR
An unexpected finding was that a considerable proportion of patients was tested neither for AQP4- nor MOG-abs during diagnostic work-up, which should prompt to establish and disseminate appropriate guidelines.
MOG Spectrum Disorders and Role of MOG‐Antibodies in Clinical Practice
TLDR
The increasing spectrum of phenotypes associated with MOG‐abs is described with a focus on clinical characteristics, radiological features, and therapeutic aspects.
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References

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Antibodies to MOG and AQP4 in adults with neuromyelitis optica and suspected limited forms of the disease
TLDR
MOG-ab identify a subgroup of adult patients with NMO, LETM and ON that have better outcome than those associated with AQP4-ab and the follow-up of titres does not correlate with outcome.
Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in bilateral and recurrent optic neuritis
TLDR
MOG antibodies have a strong association with BON and may be a useful clinical biomarker, and Class II evidence that MOG antibodies are associated with AQP4 antibody–negative BON is provided.
Complement activating antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in neuromyelitis optica and related disorders
TLDR
It is shown for the first time that a subset of AQP4-IgG seronegative patients with NMO and HR-NMO exhibit a MOG-IGG mediated immune response, whereas MOG is not a target antigen in cases with an AQP 4-directed humoral immune response.
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TLDR
The neurologic, serologic, and radiographic findings associated with CNS AQP4 autoimmunity in childhood are described, indicating a distinctive recurrent and widespread inflammatory CNS disease in children.
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TLDR
The similar frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG in both childhood and adult cases of NMO, and its rarity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, supports the concept that these diseases have a similar pathogenesis in childhood and adulthood.
Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in adults with a neuromyelitis optica phenotype
TLDR
4 patients with an NMO/NMOSD phenotype who had antibodies to MOG appear to have more favorable clinical outcomes than those with typical AQP4 antibody–mediated disease, and MOG antibody titers fell in all 4 patients.
Persisting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in aquaporin-4 antibody negative pediatric neuromyelitis optica
TLDR
Pediatric patients presenting with clinical symptoms and MRI findings highly suggestive of NMO but with high and persisting MOG-IgG antibody titers are most likely to represent a distinct subgroup of acute demyelinating diseases with important clinical and therapeutic implications.
Anti-MOG antibodies plead against MS diagnosis in an Acquired Demyelinating Syndromes cohort
TLDR
MOG antibodies are strongly skewed towards ADS children that present with an ADEM-like disease onset, and the presence of such antibodies pleads against a future diagnosis of MS.
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with aquaporin-4 and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies: a comparative study.
TLDR
Patients with MOG-Abs can fulfill the diagnostic criteria for NMO, but there are differences when compared with those with AQP4-Abs, which include a higher proportion of males, younger age, and greater likelihood of involvement of the conus and deep gray matter structures on imaging.
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