Antibodies of sharks: revolution and evolution.

  title={Antibodies of sharks: revolution and evolution.},
  author={John Jacob Marchalonis and Samuel F. Schluter and Robert M. Bernstein and Valerie S. Hohman},
  journal={Immunological reviews},
The combinatorial immune response is restricted to jawed vertebrates with cartilaginous fishes being the lowest extant species to have the mechanism for diversification and an extensive panoply of immunoglobulins, T-cell receptors and MHC products. Here, we review the molecular events of the "big bang" or rapid evolutionary appearance of the functionally complete combinatorial immune system coincident with the appearance of ancestral jawed vertebrates, suggesting that this event was catalyzed… CONTINUE READING

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