Antibiotic resistance is ancient

  title={Antibiotic resistance is ancient},
  author={Vanessa M D'Costa and Christine E. King and Lindsay R. Kalan and Mariya Morar and Wilson W. L. Sung and Carsten Schwarz and Duane G. Froese and Grant Zazula and Fabrice Calmels and R{\'e}gis Debruyne and Geoffrey Brian Golding and Hendrik N. Poinar and Gerard D. Wright},
The discovery of antibiotics more than 70 years ago initiated a period of drug innovation and implementation in human and animal health and agriculture. These discoveries were tempered in all cases by the emergence of resistant microbes. This history has been interpreted to mean that antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a modern phenomenon; this view is reinforced by the fact that collections of microbes that predate the antibiotic era are highly susceptible to antibiotics. Here we… 

Ancient Resistome.

It is hoped that the knowledge gained from this research will help to better understand the evolution of antibiotic resistance genes and will be used in drug design as a proactive measure against antibiotic resistance.

Ancient Antibiotics, Ancient Resistance

Evidence that antibiotics and resistance were present in the environment before anthropogenic use is discussed, describing techniques including direct sampling of ancient DNA and phylogenetic analyses that are used to reconstruct the past.

The Prehistory of Antibiotic Resistance.

Together with bioinformatic analyses on modern-day sequences, these studies predict an ancient origin of resistance that long precedes the use of antibiotics in the clinic, and is important in predicting its future evolution.

A diverse intrinsic antibiotic resistome from a cave bacterium

A resistome comparison across related surface Paenibacillus affirms the conservation of resistance over millions of years and establishes the longevity of these genes in this genus.

Emergence of methicillin resistance predates the clinical use of antibiotics

The evolution of clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes in wild animals and the connectivity of natural, agricultural and human ecosystems demonstrate that the use of a One Health approach is critical for the understanding and management of antibiotic resistance, which is one of the biggest threats to global health, food security and development.

Antibiotic Resistance Is Prevalent in an Isolated Cave Microbiome

A screen of a sample of the culturable microbiome of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, in a region of the cave that has been isolated for over 4 million years reported that, like surface microbes, these bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics; some strains were resistant to 14 different commercially available antibiotics.

Antibiotics as selectors and accelerators of diversity in the mechanisms of resistance: from the resistome to genetic plasticity in the β-lactamases world

The antibiotic resistance problem is analyzed from intrinsic and environmental resistomes to the adaptive potential of resistance genes and the driving forces involved in their diversification, in order to provide a global perspective of the resistance problem.

Antibiotic adjuvants: identification and clinical use

Taylor and colleagues have recently published a work aimed to identify molecules that potentiate the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics commonly used against Gram-positive bacteria but that have, however, little or no effect on Gramnegative pathogens.

Overcoming bacterial resistance to antibiotics: the urgent need – a review

This review begins with the discovery of antibiotics, covers the modes of action of select antimicrobials, and ends with a literature review of the newest potential alternative approaches to overcoming the drug resistance phenomenon.



Functional Characterization of the Antibiotic Resistance Reservoir in the Human Microflora

To understand the process by which antibiotic resistance genes are acquired by human pathogens, functionally characterized the resistance reservoir in the microbial flora of healthy individuals and identified most of the resistance genes, which have not been previously identified and are evolutionarily distant from known resistance genes.

The antibiotic resistome: the nexus of chemical and genetic diversity

Understanding the molecular diversity that underlies resistance will inform the use of these drugs and guide efforts to develop new efficacious antibiotics.

Conjugative plasmids in bacteria of the ‘pre-antibiotic’ era

It is reported that 24% of strains of Enterobacteriaceae collected from 1917 to 1954 encode information for the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another, and from at least 19% of the strains, conjugative plasmids carrying no antibiotic resistance were transferred to Escherichia coli K-12.

Sampling the Antibiotic Resistome

This work has shown that soil-dwelling bacteria are a reservoir of resistance determinants that can be mobilized into the microbial community, and study of this reservoir could provide an early warning system for future clinically relevant antibiotic resistance mechanisms.

Bacteria Subsisting on Antibiotics

Bacteria subsisting on antibiotics are surprisingly phylogenetically diverse, and many are closely related to human pathogens, suggesting that this unappreciated reservoir of antibiotic-resistance determinants can contribute to the increasing levels of multiple antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria.

Isolation of antibiotic resistance bacterial strains from Eastern Siberia permafrost sediments

A collection of bacterial antibiotic resistance strains isolated from arctic permafrost subsoil sediments of various age and genesis was created, and determinants of the two types were detected: strA-strB genes coding for aminoglycoside phosphotransferases and genes aadA encoding aminglycoside adenylyltransferases.

Vancomycin resistance in gram-positive cocci.

  • P. Courvalin
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2006
The mode of action and the mechanism of bacterial resistance to glycopeptides, as exemplified by the VanA type, which is mediated by transposon Tn1546 and is widely spread in enterococci are reviewed.

Has the era of untreatable infections arrived?

  • D. Livermore
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
  • 2009
No agent in advanced development has much to offer here, though there is interest in modified, less-toxic, polymyxin derivatives and in the siderophore monobactam BAL30072, which has impressive activity against A. baumannii and members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

Characterization of an oxytetracycline‐resistance gene, otrA, of Streptomyces rimosus

The sequence of a 2657 bp DNA fragment containing the coding and regulatory regions of the oxytetracycline (OTC)‐resistance gene, otrA, from the OTC producer Streptomyces rimosus was determined, consistent with regulation of antibiotic production by OtrA to prevent ‘suicide’.