Antimicrobial lubricant formulations containing poly(hydroxybenzene)-trimethoprim conjugates synthesized by tyrosinase
Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is associated with high rates of morbidity. This systematic review assesses the efficacy of antibiotic-based lock solutions to prevent CRBSI. A secondary goal of our review is to determine which antibiotic-based lock solution is most effective in reducing CRBSI. We searched Medline and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials up to April 2009. Data from the original publications were used to calculate the overall relative risk of CRBSI. Data for similar outcomes were combined in the analysis where appropriate, using a random-effects model. Sixteen trials were included in the review, nine conducted in haemodialysis patients, six in oncology patients (mainly children) and one study concerned critically ill neonates. Three haemodialysis patients needed to be treated with antibiotics to prevent one CRBSI, given a mean insertion time of 146 days (range: 37-365) and an average baseline risk of 3.0 events per 1000 catheter-days. In the oncology patients a number needed to treat (NNT) was calculated of eight patients to prevent one BSI, given a mean insertion time of 227 days (range: 154-295) and average baseline risk of 1.7 events per 1000 catheter-days. There are indications that antibiotic-based lock solutions as compared to heparin lock solutions are effective in the prevention of CRBSI in haemodialysis patients. In trials studying oncology patients the estimated effect showed only a marginal significant benefit in favour of antibiotic-based lock solutions. Our review supports the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in not recommending routine use of antibiotic-based catheter lock solutions.