Antiatherogenic small, dense HDL—guardian angel of the arterial wall?

  title={Antiatherogenic small, dense HDL—guardian angel of the arterial wall?},
  author={Anatol Kontush and M. John Chapman},
  journal={Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine},
Our understanding of the relationship between the atheroprotective activities of HDL and heterogeneity of HDL particles has advanced greatly. HDL particles are highly heterogeneous in structure, intravascular metabolism and antiatherogenic activity. In this review, we discuss new findings on the antiatherogenic properties of HDL particles. Small, dense HDL possesses potent antioxidative activity but this is compromised under conditions of atherogenic dyslipidemia. HDL functional deficiency… 
Dysfunctional HDL as a Therapeutic Target for Atherosclerosis Prevention.
Several evidences are showing that different pathologic conditions, especially those associated with an inflammatory response, can cause dramatic alterations of HDL protein and lipid cargo resulting in HDL dysfunction, and established and investigational drugs designed to affect lipid metabolism and to increase HDL-C are only partly effective in correcting HDL dysfunction.
Antiatherogenic function of HDL particle subpopulations: focus on antioxidative activities
Pharmacological normalization of HDL metabolism concomitantly with correction of circulating levels, composition and biological activities of HDL particles, with enrichment in apoA-I and reduction in HDL surface rigidity, may constitute an efficacious therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerosis in dyslipidaemic patients at high cardiovascular risk.
Subfractions and subpopulations of HDL: an update.
There is mounting evidence supporting HDL subclasses as an important biomarker to predict and/or reduce CV risk, and which subfractions are reliable markers of CV risk and/ or potential targets of novel, more focused, and effective therapies.
Biological Consequences of Dysfunctional HDL.
Analysis of pathological conditions leading to the formation of dysfunctional HDL and their role in atherosclerosis and beyond suggests pharmacological approaches aimed at restoring HDL functions may impact more significantly on CVD outcome than drugs used so far to increase HDL-C levels.
The relationship between high density lipoprotein subclass profile and plasma lipids concentrations
The general shift toward smaller size of HDL particle size in HTG, HCL and MHL subjects, and the changes were more prominent with the elevation of TG and TC levels which imply that HDL maturation might be abnormal and RCT pathway might be weaken, suggest that plasma lipids, apos concentrations and apos ratios should be considered while assessing the CHD risk.
HDL Particle Size and Its Association with Paraoxonase-1 Activity in CAD Patients
This case –control study revealed that CAD patients had a higher mean HDL particle size and lower concentrations of Apo-A1 and paraoxonase-1 activity, though the concentrations of HDL were significantly higher in cases due to statin therapy.


HDL metabolism in hypertriglyceridemic states: an overview.
Small, Dense HDL Particles Exert Potent Protection of Atherogenic LDL Against Oxidative Stress
Small, dense HDL exhibit potent antioxidant activity, which may arise from synergy in inactivation of oxidized LDL lipids by enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms, in part reflecting distinct intrinsic physicochemical properties.
High density lipoproteins and arteriosclerosis. Role of cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport.
High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, and HDL exerts various potentially antiatherogenic properties, including the mediation of reverse
Therapeutic approaches to raising plasma HDL-cholesterol levels
The clinical evidence in support of the pleiotropic effects of HDLs is reviewed, along with laboratory-based investigations of the molecular mechanisms of action, and three current strategies currently being considered to achieve this goal are reviewed.
Defective antioxidative activity of small dense HDL3 particles in type 2 diabetes: relationship to elevated oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia
Antioxidative activity of small dense HDL is deficient in type 2 diabetes, is intimately linked to oxidative stress, glycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia and primarily reflects abnormal intrinsic physicochemical properties of HDL particles.
Atheroprotective effects of high-density lipoprotein-associated lysosphingolipids.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with elevated oxidative stress and dysfunctional dense high-density lipoprotein particles displaying impaired antioxidative activity.
It is concluded that antioxidative activity of small, dense HDL subfractions of altered chemical composition is impaired in MetS and associated with elevated oxidative stress and insulin resistance and induction of selective increase in the circulating concentrations of dense HDLSubfractions may represent an innovative therapeutic approach for the attenuation of high cardiovascular risk inMetS.