D-Allose Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth by Reducing GLUT1 Expression.
D-allose, a type of rare sugar, can produce inhibitory effects on activated leukocytes in various organs, including immunosuppressive effects and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as anti-oxyradical effects. The present experiment was performed to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of D-allose in acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model was applied in rats. D-allose was administered two times via a tail vein (300 mg/kg, 1 hour before ischemia and 10 hours after reperfusion). After 22 hours of reperfusion following 2 hours of ischemia, brain damage was evaluated by cerebral infarct volume. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and protein expression of MPO and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by immunohistochemistry were evaluated to investigate the potential mechanisms of D-allose. The experimental results showed that D-allose exhibited significant neuroprotective effects against acute cerebral I/R injury. The infarct volume in D-allose-treated rats (90.9 ± 13.5 mm(3)) was significantly smaller than that in vehicle rats (114.9 ± 15.3 mm(3), p < 0.01). D-allose treatment significantly suppressed the MPO activity and the number of MPO-positive cells compared with those in the vehicle group, suggesting that treatment with D-allose can reduce the infiltration of leukocytes into the ischemic tissue. Treatment of D-allose also significantly decreased the number of COX-2-positive cells and microglial activation in the ischemic tissue. The present results demonstrate that D-allose exerts potent neuroprotective effects against acute cerebral I/R injury, and constitute the first evidence of anti-inflammatory effects of D-allose which considerably contributes to the beneficial effects. Treatment with D-allose might provide a new strategy and clinically beneficial outcome for acute ischemic stroke.