Cancer prevention sometimes referred to as tertiary prevention or chemoprevention makes use of specific xenobiotics or drugs to prevent, delay, or retard the development of cancer. Over the last two decades or so cancer prevention has made significant strides. For example, prevention of lung cancer through smoking cessation; cervical cancer prevention through regular Pap smear tests; colon cancer prevention through screening colonoscopy; and prostate cancer reductions by prostate-specific antigen measurements in conjunction with regular prostate examinations. The seminal epidemiological observation that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prevent colon and other cancers has provided the impetus to develop novel chemoprevention approaches against cancer. To that end, a number of "designer drugs" have been synthesized that are in different stages of development, evaluation, and deployment. Some include the cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitors (coxibs), nitric oxide-releasing NSAIDs (NO-NSAIDs and NONO-NSAIDs), hydrogen sulfide-releasing NSAIDs, modulators of the lipoxygenase pathway, prostanoid receptor blockers, and chemokine receptor antagonists. In addition to these novel agents, there are also a host of naturally occurring compounds/micronutrients that have chemopreventive properties. This chapter reviews these classes of compounds, their utility and mechanism(s) of action against the background of mediators that link inflammation and cancer.