A Systematic Review of Serum Biomarkers Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide and Rheumatoid Factor as Tests for Rheumatoid Arthritis
OBJECTIVE The incidence and clinical significance of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies in a cohort of Chinese patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were studied. METHODS Anti-CCP antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 59 patients with JIA, 129 adult RA patients, 48 children with diseases other than JIA, 68 adult patients with rheumatic diseases other than RA, and 60 normal adults. Associations between anti-CCP antibodies and clinical and laboratory parameters were determined by Fisher's exact test. RESULTS Six of 59 (10.2%) patients with JIA and 71 of 129 (55%) patients with RA were positive for anti-CCP. Four of five RF-positive JIA patients and two of 54 RF-negative JIA patients were positive (p<0.001). One paediatric patient with allergy (0.9%) and two adult patients with rheumatic diseases other than RA (2.3%) were positive. All healthy controls were negative for anti-CCP. The specificity was 99.1% for JIA and 98.4% for RA. The sensitivity was 10.2% for JIA and 55% for RA. Positive predictive values were 85.7% for JIA and 97.3% for RA and negative predictive values were 66.9% for JIA and 68.5% for RA. CONCLUSION The anti-CCP antibody assay is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of RA and a subset of JIA in Chinese patients. It could be a useful predictive test for joint erosion in JIA of the polyarticular RF-positive subset and may be influential in the choice of the best therapeutic strategy in patients with recent-onset arthritis.