Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function

@article{Corcoran2010AntibatTM,
  title={Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function},
  author={Aaron J. Corcoran and William E. Conner and Jesse R. Barber},
  journal={Current Zoology},
  year={2010},
  volume={56},
  pages={358-369}
}
The night sky is the venue of an ancient acoustic battle between echolocating bats and their insect prey. Many tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) answer the attack calls of bats with a barrage of high frequency clicks. Some moth species use these clicks for acoustic aposematism and mimicry, and others for sonar jamming, however, most of the work on these defensive functions has been done on individual moth species. We here analyze the diversity of structure in tiger moth sounds from 26 spe… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Sound strategies: the 65-million-year-old battle between bats and insects.
TLDR
In an exciting new twist, researchers are taking the technologies developed in the laboratory back into the field, where they are poised to appreciate the full richness of this remarkable predator-prey interaction.
Extreme Duty Cycles in the Acoustic Signals of Tiger Moths: Sexual and Natural Selection Operating in Parallel
TLDR
The results suggest that in B. trigona natural and sexual selection may work in parallel, to favor higher duty cycle clicking, which is not essential for mating in C. arizonensis.
Survival Sounds in Insects: Diversity, Function, and Evolution
TLDR
Sonic defenses in insects are poorly understood and it is recommended that future investigations focus on testing hypotheses explaining the functions and evolution of these survival sounds using predator-prey experiments and comparative phylogenetics.
Acoustic Aposematism and Evasive Action in Select Chemically Defended Arctiine (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Species: Nonchalant or Not?
TLDR
The results show that acoustic aposematism is effective at deterring bat predation in a natural context and that this strategy is likely to be the ancestral function of tymbal organs within the Arctiinae.
Anti-Bat Ultrasound Production in Moths is Globally and Phylogenetically Widespread
TLDR
A long-term study across the globe, assaying moth response to playback of bat echolocation, finds preliminary evidence of independent origins of sonar jamming in at least six subfamilies, and suggests that jamming and warning are not mutually exclusive strategies.
Deaf moths employ acoustic Müllerian mimicry against bats using wingbeat-powered tymbals
TLDR
It is revealed how Yponomeuta moths acquire sophisticated acoustic protection despite being deaf themselves and hence unable to respond to bat attacks, and is concluded that both moth taxa are mutual Müllerian acoustic mimics.
Negligible energetic cost of sonar jamming in a bat–moth interaction
TLDR
The energetic cost and efficiency of sound production for the clicks produced by the moth Bertholdia trigona (Grote’s bertholdia) to jam the sonar of predatory bats is studied.
Evolutionary escalation: the bat–moth arms race
TLDR
The evolutionary history of bats and eared insects, focusing on the insect order Lepidoptera, is reviewed, and the evidence for antipredator adaptations and predator counter-adaptations are considered.
Sonar jamming in the bat-moth arms race
TLDR
Evidence is strong for the warning and startle hypotheses, although the startle effect is ephemeral, and the sonar jamming hypothesis has not been confirmed to occur in nature.
Convergent Evolution of Wingbeat-Powered Anti-Bat Ultrasound in the Microlepidoptera
TLDR
It is demonstrated that wingbeat-powered ultrasound production, likely providing an anti-bat function, appears to indeed be spread widely in the microlepidoptera; showing that acoustically active structures (aeroelastic tymbals, ATs) have evolved in at least three, and likely four different regions of the wing.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 58 REFERENCES
Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat–tiger moth arms race
TLDR
It is found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry, and the sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.
Tiger Moth Jams Bat Sonar
TLDR
Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, it is shown that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar.
Tiger moth responses to a simulated bat attack: timing and duty cycle
TLDR
No relationship exists between the duty cycle of a tiger moth's call (and thus the call's probability of jamming the bat) and its temporal response to bat attack, calling into doubt the assumptions behind the jamming hypothesis.
The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach
TLDR
These findings support the hypotheses that the clicks of arctiid moths are both an active defence (through echolocation disruption) and a reliable indicator of chemical defence against aerial-hawking bats.
Jamming bat echolocation: the dogbane tiger moth Cycnia tenera times its clicks to the terminal attack calls of the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus.
TLDR
The results demonstrate that, at normal echolocation intensities, C. tenera does not respond to approach calls but waits until the terminal phase of the attack before emitting its clicks, and support the hypothesis of a jamming effect.
The neuroethology of sound production in tiger moths (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)
  • J. Fullard
  • Biology
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2004
TLDR
It is proposed that the tymbal response in modern arctiids evolved from either flight or walking CPGs and that preadaptive circuitry ancestral to tymbals still exists in modern silent Lepidoptera.
Interactions between bats and arctiid moths
TLDR
Free-flying arctiid moths changed their flight paths less in response to trains of ultrasonic pulses than did moths of other families similarly capable of hearing these signals.
The generation of ultrasonic signals by a New World arctiid moth
TLDR
The sounds generated by the metathoracic tymbal organs of the arctiid moth Meles laodamia Druce are described and related to their structure and the acoustic performance is compared to that of a simple mechanical model.
Tiger moths and woolly bears : behavior, ecology, and evolution of the Arctiidae
TLDR
The relationships between Chemical Defense and Sex in Tiger Moths and Darwin's Moth: Utetheisa in the Galapagos Islands and Patterns of Arctiid Diversity are discussed.
Jamming bat echolocation: the clicks of arctiid moths
TLDR
Analysis of the clicks produced by some arctiid moths shows that their acoustic characteristics are remarkably similar to those of frequency-modulated echolocation calls produced by many bats as they close with their prey.
...
...