Anthropoid Origins

  title={Anthropoid Origins},
  author={Richard F. Kay and Callum Ross and Blythe A. Williams},
  pages={797 - 804}
Recent fossil discoveries have greatly increased our knowledge of the morphology and diversity of early Anthropoidea, the suborder to which humans belong. Phylogenetic analysis of Recent and fossil taxa supports the hypotheses that a haplorhine-strepsirrhine dichotomy existed at least at the time of the earliest record of fossil primates (earliest Eocene) and that eosimiids (middle Eocene, China) are primitive anthropoids. Functional analysis suggests that stem haplorhines were small, nocturnal… 
Anthropoid versus strepsirhine status of the African Eocene primates Algeripithecus and Azibius: craniodental evidence
New data support the idea that Algeripithecus and its sister genus Azibius are the earliest offshoots of an Afro–Arabian strepsirhine clade that embraces extant toothcombed primates and their fossil relatives and strongly challenge the role of Africa as the ancestral homeland for anthropoids.
Origins, Diversity and Relationships of Lemurs
  • R. Martin
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    International Journal of Primatology
  • 2004
Overall, it now seems that primates originated at around 90 Ma rather than the 55 Ma indicated by direct reading of the known fossil record, and colonization of Madagascar by lemurs would have taken place at about 80 Ma, double the date usually accepted, and should be interpreted in terms of contemporary continental relationships.
Arrival and diversification of caviomorph rodents and platyrrhine primates in South America.
Considering both the fossil record and these molecular datings, the favored scenarios are a trans-Atlantic migration of primates from Africa at the end of the Eocene or beginning of the Oligocene, and a colonization of South America by rodents during the Middle or Late Eocene.
Hands of early primates.
What is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record is reviewed and new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms are provided.
New adapiform primate of Old World affinities from the Devil's Graveyard Formation of Texas.
The labyrinthine morphology of Pronycticebus gaudryi (Primates, Adapiformes)
The investigation of the labyrinthine morphology of Pronycticebus gaudryi, reveals no synapomorphy with the labyrinths of modern anthropoids, which supports the hypothesis that the Cercamoniinae and other Adapiformes are the sister group of toothcombed primates.
Astragalar morphology of Afradapis, a large adapiform primate from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt.
An astragalus from BQ-2 is described, attributable to Afradapis on the basis of size and relative abundance, and comparisons to a sample of euarchontan a stragali show the new fossil to be most similar to those of adapines and lorisids.
Taxon combinations, parsimony analysis (PAUP*), and the taxonomy of the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrix flavicauda.
It is concluded that specific taxon combinations of the primary study group has a biasing effect in parsimony analysis, and that the cladistic rationale for resurrecting the Oreonax generic distinction for the yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Lagothrix flavicauda) is based on an artifact of idiosyncratic sampling within the study group below the genus level.
Evolution of activity patterns and chromatic vision in primates: morphometrics, genetics and cladistics.
This study investigated the evolution of activity patterns and trichromacy in primates using a new method for reconstructing activity patterns in fragmentary fossils and by reconstructing visual system character evolution at key ancestral nodes of primate higher taxa.
Darwinius masillae is a strepsirrhine--a reply to Franzen et al. (2009).