Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms

  title={Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms},
  author={James C. Orr and Victoria J. Fabry and Olivier Aumont and Laurent Bopp and Scott C. Doney and Richard A. Feely and Anand Gnanadesikan and Nicolas Gruber and Akio Ishida and Fortunat Joos and Robert M. Key and Keith Lindsay and Ernst Maier‐Reimer and Richard J. Matear and Patrick Monfray and Anne Mouchet and Raymond G. Najjar and Gian-Kasper Plattner and Keith B. Rodgers and Christopher L. Sabine and Jorge L. Sarmiento and Reiner Schlitzer and Richard Slater and Ian J. Totterdell and Marie-France Weirig and Yasuhiro Yamanaka and Andrew Yool},
Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms—such as corals and some plankton—will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean–carbon cycle to assess calcium… 

Aragonite Undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: Effects of Ocean Acidification and Sea Ice Melt

The increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and attendant increase in ocean acidification and sea ice melt act together to decrease the saturation state of calcium carbonate in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean.

Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem.

The potential for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well known; both are high priorities for future research.

Calcium carbonate cycling in future oceans and its influence on future climates

In the last few years, evidence has accumulated that calcifying organisms are likely to be affected by ocean acidification. Therefore, the production of calcium carbonate will probably decline,

Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification

Abstract. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms, and thereby modifying the oceanic carbon and alkalinity cycles.

Predicting potential impacts of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers from the Southern Ocean

A review and a quantitative meta-analysis of studies investigating the effects of the OA on a range of biological responses such as shell state, development and growth rate suggest taxa with calcitic, aragonitic and HMC skeletons may be more vulnerable to the expected carbonate chemistry alterations, and low magnesium calcite (LMC) species may be mostly resilient.

Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context

  • P. WilliamsonC. Turley
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2012
If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration.

Life on the margin: implications of ocean acidification on Mg-calcite, high latitude and cold-water marine calcifiers

Future anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and the resulting ocean acidification may have severe consequences for marine calcifying organisms and ecosystems. Marine calcifiers depositing calcitic hard

Global Biogeochemical Cycles Energetic costs of calcification under ocean acidification

Anthropogenic ocean acidification threatens to negatively impact marine organisms that precipitate calcium carbonate skeletons. Past geological events, such as the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction,

Emergent constraint on Arctic Ocean acidification in the twenty-first century

Greater regional anthropogenic carbon storage and ocean acidification than previously projected is indicated and the probability that large parts of the mesopelagic Arctic Ocean will be undersaturated with respect to calcite by the end of the century is increased.



Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2

It is suggested that the progressive increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may slow down the production of calcium carbonate in the surface ocean, as the process of calcification releases CO2 to the atmosphere.

Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans

The in situ CaCO3 dissolution rates for the global oceans from total alkalinity and chlorofluorocarbon data are estimated, and the future impacts of anthropogenic CO2 on Ca CO3 shell–forming species are discussed.

The Oceanic Carbonate System: A Reassessment of Biogenic Controls

Dissolution experiments with freshly collected materials shed considerable light on a mystery surrounding these labile organisms: although plankton collections from net tows almost always contain large numbers of pteropods, these organisms are never a major component of biogenic materials in long-duration sediment trap collections.

Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs

A coral reef represents the net accumulation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced by corals and other calcifying organisms. If calcification declines, then reef-building capacity also declines.

Effect of increased atmospheric CO2 on shallow water marine benthos

[1] The decision to sequester CO2 in the deep ocean should ultimately be based not only upon what would happen to deep sea marine biota but also upon what would happen to surface organisms if nothing

Representing key phytoplankton functional groups in ocean carbon cycle models: Coccolithophorids

The physical and chemical processes that select for coccolithophorid blooms detected in Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color imagery are addressed and a rule of “universal distribution and local selection” is suggested: coccolitophorids can be considered cosmopolitan taxa, but their genetic plasticity provides physiological accommodation to local environmental selection pressure.

Anthropogenic CO2 in the Atlantic Ocean

The anthropogenic CO2 in the Atlantic Ocean is separated from the large natural variability of dissolved inorganic carbon using the method developed by Gruber et al. [1996]. Surface concentrations of

Ocean chemistry of the fossil fuel CO2 signal: The haline signal of “business as usual”

The increasing fossil fuel CO2 signal in surface ocean waters, superimposed upon the natural background, has now reached the level of about 2mg kg−1, and thus, if we were to conceive of this as a

Middle eocene seawater pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

Construction of a pH profile for the middle Eocene tropical Pacific Ocean shows that atmospheric pCO2 was probably similar to modern concentrations or slightly higher.