Antenatal perineal massage and subsequent perineal outcomes: a randomised controlled trial

@article{Shipman1997AntenatalPM,
  title={Antenatal perineal massage and subsequent perineal outcomes: a randomised controlled trial},
  author={Michael Shipman and D R Boniface and M. E. Tefft and F McCloghry},
  journal={BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics \& Gynaecology},
  year={1997},
  volume={104}
}
Objective To study the effects of antenatal perineal massage on subsequent perineal outcomes at delivery. 
Women's views on the practice of prenatal perineal massage
TLDR
To determine how women who practised perineal massage during pregnancy assessed the technique, a large number of them said they believed the technique was safe to use during pregnancy.
Systematic review of pelvic floor interventions during pregnancy
TLDR
Pelvic floor interventions during pregnancy could reduce the impact of pregnancy and delivery on the pelvic floor and improve the chances of safe and effective delivery.
Le massage périnéal ante-partum : revue des essais randomisés
Journal de Gynecologie Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction - Vol. 30 - N° 6 - p. 565-571
Perineal trauma: prevention and treatment.
TLDR
Two aspects of routine midwifery practice are examined: management of the perineum at the end of the second stage of labor and management and repair of perineal injury.
Prospective randomised multicentre trial with the birth trainer EPI‐NO® for the prevention of perineal trauma
Background: In several non‐randomised trials training with EPI‐NO® increased the rate of intact perineum and decreased episiotomy rates, shortened the second stage of labour and lowered use of pain
Does antepartum perineal massage reduce intrapartum lacerations
TLDR
Perineal massage reduces both the incidence of perineal trauma requiring suturing and the likelihood of episiotomy in women who have never given birth vaginally.
Antenatal perineal massage: Part 2
TLDR
Although the number of eligible women receiving information on perineal massage was well below the audit target, a 6% reduction inPerineal trauma was noted in women who had a vaginal delivery and would repeat it in a subsequent pregnancy.
Antenatal perineal massage: Part 1
TLDR
A review of literature review on perineal massage and an evaluation of the massage training of midwives working in antenatal clinics found that some midwives actively promoting the service while others had no interest in the project and did not give information on antenatal perineAL massage to their women.
Perineal massage during pregnancy: a prospective controlled trial.
TLDR
The practice of antenatal perineal massage showed neither a protective nor a detrimental significant effect on the occurrence ofPerineal trauma.
Prevention of Perineal Trauma
TLDR
Proven strategies include the practice of perineal massage in the antenatal period, delayed pushing in the second stage of labor with an epidural in situ, restrictive use of episiotomy, preference of a mediolateral over a midline episiotome, and the use of a vacuum extractor instead of forceps for instrumental delivery.
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References

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Maintenance of pelvic floor integrity during childbirth.
  • K. Schrag
  • Medicine
    Journal of nurse-midwifery
  • 1979
TLDR
The factors contributing to pelvic floor integrity during childbirth are discussed, with special emphasis on the technique of perineal massage.
Effect of perineal massage on the incidence of episiotomy and perineal laceration in a nurse-midwifery service.
TLDR
This study supported the hypothesis that women who practice perineal massage at least four times per week will have a lower incidence of episiotomy and lacerations than those who do not.
Perineal massage. Effect on the incidence of episiotomy and laceration in a nulliparous population.
TLDR
Perineal massage may be one technique that will decrease the need for episiotomy during pregnancy, and Chi square analysis showed a significant difference between the groups.
Prevention of perineal trauma by perineal massage during pregnancy: a pilot study.
TLDR
Based on the results of this pilot study, a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy ofperineal massage in preventing perineal trauma at birth appears feasible.
Factors associated with perineal outcome during childbirth.
TLDR
Those factors found to be significantly associated with perineal outcome during childbirth were parity, analgesia use, anesthesia use, maternal position at delivery, and infant weight.
Factors associated with the occurrence of perineal lacerations.
TLDR
Third and fourth degree perineal lacerations are found to be strongly related to low parity, low age, use of forceps, and episiotomies, and weakly related to normal prepregnant weight, weight gain over 30 pounds, anemia, long second stage, and epidural and pudendal anesthesia.
A randomized study of two methods of teaching perineal massage: effects on practice rates, episiotomy rates, and lacerations.
TLDR
Even though the rate of practice of perineal massage almost doubled among experimental group women, the videotape instruction method was statistically nonsignificant and Episiotomy and laceration rates were not affected by teaching method.
Association of episiotomy and delivery position with deep perineal laceration during spontaneous delivery in nulliparous women.
TLDR
The results suggest that selective use of episiotomy and stirrups can minimize perineal trauma during spontaneous delivery in nulliparous women.
Alternative positions for childbirth--part II: second stage of labor.
TLDR
A variety of positions that may be considered as alternatives to the lithotomy position are reviewed and the nature of the parturienfs expulsive efforts as an additional factor related to maternal position and influencing the duration of second stage is considered.
Alternative positions in the second stage of labour: a randomized controlled trial
TLDR
Alternative positions in the second stage of labour, in particular kneeling, are achievable even without specific birth aids and antenatal preparation and arc easily integrated into modern labour ward practice; they may have clinical advantages which need further investigation.
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