Intraluminal pressure of the seminal tract at seminal emission from the ejaculatory duct and the mode of transport of cauda epididymal contents were investigated to explore the mechanism of sperm transport. Direct electrical stimulation of any site of the cauda epididymis and vas deferens, which generated nerve-transmitted muscle contraction, caused elevation of the intraluminal pressure only at the cauda epididymis, whereas stimulation of the testis, caput, and corpus epididymis caused no response. The dye instilled in the cauda was emitted into the urethra during the stimulation. Shortly after discontinuation of the stimulation, retrograde movement of residual dye in the vas resulted in its ultimate reentry into the cauda epididymis. Significant decrease of the muscle tonus just after contraction was observed at the cauda. Distension of the wall of the vas generated elevation of the intraluminal pressure only at the site distended. The above results indicate the presence of rapid antegrade and retrograde movement of the sperm and the crucial role of the cauda epididymis on the sperm transport.