Anosmia: diagnosis and management

  title={Anosmia: diagnosis and management},
  author={Eric H. Holbrook and Donald A. Leopold},
  journal={Current Opinion in Otolaryngology \& Head and Neck Surgery},
  • E. Holbrook, D. Leopold
  • Published 1 February 2003
  • Medicine
  • Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Disorders of the sense of smell can be frustrating for both the patient and physician. Ongoing research in this field has provided insight into the possible mechanisms for smell loss; however, therapy is still limited. Commercially distributed smell testing kits and newer screening tests using material available in all clinical settings have made diagnosis and measurement of the degree of impairment available to all physicians. A detailed history and physical examination are the most powerful… 
Anosmia: Differential Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management
The differential diagnosis, workup, and current treatment strategies of anosmia and smell disorders are reviewed, with a focus on improving both the diagnosis and reporting of treatment outcomes of olfactory training.
Cost effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging in the workup of the dysosmia patient
It is hypothesize that MRI scans for idiopathic dysosmia will demonstrate sufficient significant findings to be a cost‐effective screening tool.
Case report: olfactory loss and unrelated chronic rhinosinusitis.
The paper discusses the practical management of patients presenting with olfactory dysfunction, and a well conducted anamnesis and objective assessment of total anosmia through smell identification tests raised the suspicion of a sensorineural Olfactory disturbance.
An updated review of clinical olfaction
  • E. Holbrook
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery
  • 2006
Recent advances in the basic science of olfaction provides an opportunity to develop new and novel clinical studies in an attempt at improving the quality of life for many of these patients.
An Atypical Etiology of Anosmia: Case Report and Literature Review
The purpose of this paper is to alert about an atypical presentation of this tumor and to reinforce the importance of a complete and correct patient evaluation in order to avoid future misdiagnosis.
An Atypical Etiology of Anosmia
An atypical presentation ofSinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is reported and the importance of a complete and correct patient evaluation is reinforced in order to avoid future misdiagnosis.
The Efficacy of Stellate Ganglion Block in Sensorineural Anosmia Patients Unresponsive to Steroid Therapy
Stellate ganglion block (SGB) may be a good treatment modality for patients with anosmia unresponsive to conventional steroid therapy, and results suggest that SGB shows improvement of olfactory function with SGB.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Diagnostic and Research Tool in Patients with Olfactory Dysfunction: A Systematic Review.
BACKGROUND Patients with acquired, idiopathic olfactory dysfunction (OD) commonly undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation to rule out intracranial pathologies. This practice is highly
Computed Tomography Scans in the Evaluation of Patients with Olfactory Dysfunction
CT scans are useful to diagnose conductive/inflammatory olfactory loss in patients suspected of non-SND, which may then justify a course with systemic steroids, and appear to be of clinical significance only when surgical treatment is contemplated or where the use of systemic corticosteroids is not possible.
Diffusion tensor imaging: a smart move to olfactory pathway imaging; comparative study of chronic sinonasal polyposis patients and normal control
MR volumetry and DTI parameters can be used as objective measurements for the olfactory dysfunction for patients with chronic sinonasal polyposis, and showed that olfaction bulb and tract volume, FA and ADC could distinguish between patients and healthy controls.


Disorders of smell and taste.
Is Imaging Necessary in the Evaluation of the Patient with an Isolated Complaint of Anosmia?
  • N. Busaba
  • Medicine
    Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • 2001
An investigation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of imaging studies in determining the etiology of olfactory loss in the patient with an isolated complaint of anosmia and no relevant findings on physical examination, including nasal endoscopy, found that these imaging studies did not add to the information obtained by the clinical history and endoscopic nasal examination.
The Diagnosis of a Conductive Olfactory Loss
The purpose of this report is to characterize those aspects of the history and physical examination that will help to substantiate the diagnosis of a conductive olfactory loss.
University of pennsylvania smell identification test: A rapid quantitative olfactory function test for the clinic
A clinically‐useful and reliable quantitative test of olfactory function is developed that can be self‐administered and uses microencapsulated odorants which are released by scratching standardized odor‐impregnated test booklets.
Rapid clinical evaluation of anosmia. The alcohol sniff test.
The alcohol sniff test (AST), which uses the standard 70% isopropyl alcohol pad, was developed as a quick, reliable measure of olfactory function and should be incorporated in the routine cranial nerve examination.
Steroid‐Dependent Anosmia a
Olfactory biopsy specimens taken during the course of evaluation and treatment show electron-optically normal olfactory receptors, meaning that the probable pathogenesis of the sensory deficit is an obstruction, mechanical and possibly biochemical.
The evaluation and management of olfactory disorder following upper respiratory tract infection.
  • S. Archer
  • Medicine
    Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • 2000
Of 1834 patients who presented to 3 major centers of taste and smell disorders, 349 had smell dysfunction related to a URTI, and only 36% of these patients had anosmia on testing.
Olfaction and Its Alteration by Nasal Obstruction, Rhinitis, and Rhinosinusitis†
Within the field of otorhinolaryngology, they have revealed that surgical and medical interventions in patients with rhinosinusitis do not, on average, lead to complete recovery of olfactory function, despite common beliefs to the contrary, and associations are generally lacking between measures of airway patency and olfFactory function in such cases.
Assessment of smell and taste in patients with allergic rhinitis.
There was a positive influence of pharmacotherapy as well as specific desensitization and surgery on the impairment of the sense of smell in allergic rhinitis, and statistically positive correlations between the olfactory and gustatory thresholds were evaluated.
Candidate's Thesis: Chronic Sinusitis and Anosmia: Pathologic Changes in the Olfactory Mucosa
  • R. Kern
  • Medicine
    The Laryngoscope
  • 2000
Objectives To evaluate histological changes in the olfactory mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. These results are analyzed in light of current understanding of the pathophysiology of