Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus resistance to DDT in South Africa

  title={Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus resistance to DDT in South Africa},
  author={Keith Hargreaves and R. H. Hunt and Bd Brooke and J Mthembu and M M Weeto and T. S. Awolola and Maureen Coetzee},
  journal={Medical and Veterinary Entomology},
The malaria control programme of KwaZulu‐Natal Province, South Africa, includes Mamfene and Mlambo communities. Western‐type houses there are currently sprayed with deltamethrin, whereas traditional houses are sprayed with DDT for malaria control. In 2002, mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected from DDT‐sprayed houses, by window exit traps, and from man‐baited nets outdoors. Larval collections were also carried out at Mzinweni Pan near Mlambo. Species of… 

Indoor collections of the Anopheles funestus group (Diptera: Culicidae) in sprayed houses in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

The combination of pyrethroid resistance and P. falciparum false-positivity in An.

Increasing role of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in malaria transmission in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

BackgroundIn order to sustain the gains achieved by current malaria control strategies, robust surveillance systems that monitor dynamics of vectors and their roles in malaria transmission over time

Insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal

The data presented here affirm the presence of pyrethroid and DDT resistance previously detected in this population and also indicate the comparatively recent emergence of resistance to the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb, and show that special attention needs to be given to the principles of insecticide resistance management.

Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae from Mozambique

The lack of cross-resistance between pyrethroids and DDT in Mozambican populations suggests that a kdr-type target site resistance mechanism has not been selected, and increased frequencies of insecticide insensitive acetylcholinesterase were found in 16 of the populations tested.

Reduced susceptibility to DDT in field populations of Anopheles quadriannulatus and Anopheles arabiensis in Malawi: evidence for larval selection

Results indicate full susceptibility to permethrin, deltamethrin and malathion, but reduced susceptibility to DDT in one sample from Thom, suggesting selection in the larval stages in An.

Inheritance of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector in southern Africa, Anopheles funestus

The aim of the present study was to characterise the mode of inheritance of the resistance phenotype in a pyrethroid-resistant strain of An.

Insecticide resistance in the malarial mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and association with the kdr mutation

Results do not provide any explanation as to why this colony exhibits such widespread resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and further studies are needed to determine the precise mechanisms involved.

Characteristics of Larval Breeding Sites and Insecticide Resistance in the Anopheles gambiae Complex in Mpumalanga, South Africa

Larval control operations should include all available breeding sites and focus efforts during the dry season when these areas are discrete, using abiotic parameter data collected in the field.

Insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan: temporal trends and underlying mechanisms

These data suggest that both target-site mechanisms and metabolic mechanisms play an important role in conferring pyrethroid resistance in An.



Anopheles funestus resistant to pyrethroid insecticides in South Africa

Northern Kwazulu/Natal (KZN) Province of South Africa borders on southern Mozambique, between Swaziland and the Indian Ocean. To control malaria vectors in KZN, houses were sprayed annually with

Insecticide susceptibility in the South African malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

This study provides the first insecticide susceptibility and biochemical data for An.

Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae chromosomal inversion polymorphism, feeding and resting behaviour in relation to insecticide house‐spraying in Tanzania

There were indications, but not conclusive evidence, that mosquitoes caught indoors or outdoors had a tendency to return to the same type of resting site while in villages sprayed with either insecticide, the mean age of the vector populations was greatly reduced, compared with those in the unsprayed villages.

The Anopheles gambiae complex: a new species from Ethiopia.

Anopheles gambiae complex and disease transmission in Africa.

  • G. White
  • Biology
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
  • 1974

Bioassay and biochemical analyses of insecticide resistance in southern African Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

Insecticide exposure, synergist and biochemical assays conducted on A. funestus suggested that elevated levels of mixed function oxidases were responsible for the detoxification of pyrethroids in resistant mosquitoes in these areas.

PCR assay for identification of Anopheles quadriannulatus species B from Ethiopia and other sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex

This modified PCR assay can be used to distinguish between species A and B of An.

Molecular evidence for a kdr‐like pyrethroid resistance mechanism in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi

Molecular data is provided supporting the hypothesis that a kdr‐like pyrethroid‐resistance mechanism is present in An.

Comparison of house spraying and insecticide-treated nets for malaria control.

The efficacies of using residual house spraying and insecticide-treated nets against malaria vectors are compared, using data from six recent comparisons in Africa, Asia and Melanesia. By all the

Molecular characterization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s.

This work demonstrates that a modification of the voltage‐gated sodium channel protein recently shown to be associated with mutations of the para‐type sodium channel gene is present in certain strains of pyrethroid resistant A. gambiae, and describes a PCR‐based diagnostic test allowing its detection in the genome of single mosquitoes.