Anomalous Behavior of Synchronizer and Arbiter Circuits

@article{Chaney1973AnomalousBO,
  title={Anomalous Behavior of Synchronizer and Arbiter Circuits},
  author={Thomas J. Chaney and Charles E. Molnar},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Computers},
  year={1973},
  volume={C-22},
  pages={421-422}
}
Observations are shown of oscillatory and metastable behavior of flip-flops in response to logically undefined input conditions such as those that occur in synchronizers and arbiters. Significant systems failures have resulted from this fundamentally inescapable problem that is generally not appreciated by system designers and users. 
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References

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The gating of asynchronous signals causes logical errors. It is possible to reduce the frequency of these errors, but the price paid is a severe loss of time and extra cost in hardware.