Annealing to optimize the primary drying rate, reduce freezing-induced drying rate heterogeneity, and determine T(g)' in pharmaceutical lyophilization.

@article{Searles2001AnnealingTO,
  title={Annealing to optimize the primary drying rate, reduce freezing-induced drying rate heterogeneity, and determine T(g)' in pharmaceutical lyophilization.},
  author={James A. Searles and John F. Carpenter and Theodore W. Randolph},
  journal={Journal of pharmaceutical sciences},
  year={2001},
  volume={90 7},
  pages={872-87}
}
In a companion paper we show that the freezing of samples in vials by shelf-ramp freezing results in significant primary drying rate heterogeneity because of a dependence of the ice crystal size on the nucleation temperature during freezing.1 The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that post-freezing annealing, in which the product is held at a predetermined temperature for a specified duration, can reduce freezing-induced heterogeneity in sublimation rates. In addition, we test… CONTINUE READING