Blue noise sampling is widely employed for a variety of imaging, geometry, and rendering applications. However, existing research so far has focused mainly on isotropic sampling, and challenges remain for the anisotropic scenario both in sample generation and quality verification. We present <i>anisotropic blue noise sampling</i> to address these issues. On the generation side, we extend dart throwing and relaxation, the two classical methods for isotropic blue noise sampling, for the anisotropic setting, while ensuring both high-quality results and efficient computation. On the verification side, although Fourier spectrum analysis has been one of the most powerful and widely adopted tools, so far it has been applied only to uniform isotropic samples. We introduce approaches based on warping and sphere sampling that allow us to extend Fourier spectrum analysis for adaptive and/or anisotropic samples; thus, we can detect problems in alternative anisotropic sampling techniques that were not yet found via prior verification. We present several applications of our technique, including stippling, visualization, surface texturing, and object distribution.