Animals Respond for Food in the Presence of Free Food

@article{Neuringer1969AnimalsRF,
  title={Animals Respond for Food in the Presence of Free Food},
  author={Allen J. Neuringer},
  journal={Science},
  year={1969},
  volume={166},
  pages={399 - 401}
}
  • A. Neuringer
  • Published 17 October 1969
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Science
Pigeons pecked a response disk to gain access to grain rewards while identical grain was freely available from a cup within the experimental chamber. Similarly, rats pressed a lever for food pellets while free pellets were present. It is not necessary, therefore, to deprive an animal of food before it will engage in instrumental responding for food. Such responding can serve as its own motivation and reward. 
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Stimulus Change Contemporaneous with Food Presentation Maintains Responding in the Presence of Free Food
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The preference of albino rats for free or response-produced food
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