Animals Respond for Food in the Presence of Free Food

  title={Animals Respond for Food in the Presence of Free Food},
  author={Allen J. Neuringer},
  pages={399 - 401}
  • A. Neuringer
  • Published 17 October 1969
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Science
Pigeons pecked a response disk to gain access to grain rewards while identical grain was freely available from a cup within the experimental chamber. Similarly, rats pressed a lever for food pellets while free pellets were present. It is not necessary, therefore, to deprive an animal of food before it will engage in instrumental responding for food. Such responding can serve as its own motivation and reward. 

Rats Respond for Food on a Variable-Interval Schedule Following Satiation

Rats with extensive variable-interval (VI) lever-press training for food were given unlimited access to food in home cages. In 70 VI sessions rats continued to respond and consume pellets although

Extinction in the presence of free food

Free food temporarily suppressed responding in extinction; removing the free food caused responding to return to high strength.

Control of responding by a conditioned reinforcer in the presence of free food

Responding in the presence of free food was shown to be a function of the conditioned reinforcing properties of the hopper light.

Factors affecting keypress responding by rats in the presence of free food

Rats trained to keypress 10 times per food reinforcement exhibited behavior characteristic of this schedule of reinforcement for at least 87 consecutive sessions, during which identical food was

Comparative studies of the preference for free vs response-produced reinforcers

Neither domesticated hooded rats nor wild black rats responded appreciably for water on a CRF schedule when free water was available. However, four out of five crows showed substantial responding for

Feline indolence: Cats prefer free to response-produced food

Previous experiments have shown that rats and pigeons will emit operants for food reinforcement even when identical food is freely available. Six cats with histories of either continuous or

Acquisition of Bar Pressing in Nondeprived Rats

In a study conducted at two institutions, four naive rats were housed in operant chambers for 100 days with water and food pellets freely available and learned to lever press and obtained some food via the bar, varying from 2.1% to 13.5% of the total number of pellets consumed.

Rats’ preference for earned in comparison with free liquid reinforcers

Rats preferred to leverpress for sucrose solution rather than to take it free, but preferred free water over earned water. Adulteration of the sucrose solution with quinine produced a preference for

Stimulus Change Contemporaneous with Food Presentation Maintains Responding in the Presence of Free Food

The presence or absence of a change in the ambient stimulus conditions upon entry into a food source controlled the frequency with which pigeons choose one of two concurrently available grain

The preference of albino rats for free or response-produced food

Five of the seven Rats trained to free-feed in an operant chamber and then to leverpress for food showed a preference for free food, which strengthened on schedules requiring more than one response to produce a food pellet.



Superstition in the pigeon.

  • B. Skinner
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology
  • 1948
This week’s citation classicmarch 23, 1981 is a reexamination of its the 'superstition' experiment: a reversible figure causality and contingency: some conceptual considerations superstitious behavior classroom game teaching.

Separating the effects of interreinforcement time and number of interreinforcement responses.

The results suggest that responding is controlled by interreinforcement time and is not influenced by the number of responses emitted between reinforcements.

Motivation reconsidered: the concept of competence.

Reading motivation reconsidered the concept of competence is also a way as one of the collective books that gives many advantages as a way to develop your experiences about everything.

Integrative Activity of the Brain

  • J. Delgado
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
  • 1968
Neuropsychiatry in World War II deals with the frustrations, failures, and successes of the administrative and professional personnel in negotiating the Scylla and Charybdis between organizational responsibility and respect for the individual.

Animals will work for some types of visual and auditory stimulation; see

  • Operant Behavior: Areas of Research and Application
  • 1966

The data from the alpha-scattering experiment of Surveyor V in Mare Tranquillitatis (1) resemble data from average oceanic basalts

  • Nature 217,
  • 1968

The present phenomenon therefore cannot be explained by "functional autonomy" or an "externalization" of a hunger drive: see G. W. Allport, Personality: A Psychological Interpretation

  • 1937