Epidemiology and genetic diversity of bovine leukemia virus
Switzerland has traditionally used a passive disease reporting system for all notifiable diseases. This type of system is not suitable for the documentation of very low prevalences (freedom from disease), sub-clinical cases and non-notifiable diseases. In order to meet the high international standards for animal health surveillance and to fulfil the general need for sound animal health data, Switzerland has evaluated the feasibility of modern monitoring and surveillance concepts. In general, the principle of active surveillance has been acquired and is now being applied whenever possible. In this paper, several examples of Swiss surveillance systems are presented and discussed. They include systematic testing of random population samples, carcase screening at abattoirs and sentinel herd monitoring.