Animal Studies in the Field of Transcranial Electric Stimulation

  title={Animal Studies in the Field of Transcranial Electric Stimulation},
  author={Doris Ling and Asif Rahman and Mark Jackson and Marom Bikson},
Dozens of animal studies of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) have provided insight into the cellular mechanism of stimulation. Biomarkers of tDCS/tACS responses at the neurophysiological, behavioral, and molecular levels provide a basis to design clinical interventions that engage specific targets. This chapter provides a broad introduction to methods and insights from animal models. Both tDCS and tACS are sub-threshold… 

Combining transcranial direct current stimulation with a motor-cognitive task: the impact on dual-task walking costs in older adults

The results support the existence of a state-dependent impact of neuro-modulation that may set the stage for a more optimal neuro-rehabilitation in older adults when they were tested just after stimulation.

Frequency-Unspecific Effects of θ-tACS Related to a Visuospatial Working Memory Task

A lack of statistically significant behavioral results in the MtS task and frequency-unspecific effects on the electrophysiological level question the effectiveness of tACS in modulating cortical oscillations in a frequency-specific manner.

Activation response and functional connectivity change in rat cortex after bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation—An exploratory study

Bilateral tDCS can locally modulate neuronal activity and connectivity, which may underlie its therapeutic potential, and demonstrates successful application of an MRI‐compatible bilateral tDCS setup in an animal model.



Brain transcranial direct current stimulation modulates motor excitability in mice

The feasibility of tDCS in mice suggests the potential applicability of this technique to assess the potential therapeutic options of brain polarization in animal models of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases.

Transcranial direct-current stimulation modulates synaptic mechanisms involved in associative learning in behaving rabbits

It is shown in behaving rabbits that tDCS applied over the somatosensory cortex modulates cortical processes consequent to localized stimulation of the whisker pad or of the corresponding area of the ventroposterior medial (VPM) thalamic nucleus, and that blocking the activation of adenosine A1 receptors prevents the long-term depression evoked in the somatic cortex after cathodal tDCS.

Non‐synaptic mechanisms underlie the after‐effects of cathodal transcutaneous direct current stimulation of the human brain

The findings demonstrate that the after‐effects of tDCS have a non‐synaptic mechanism of action based upon changes in neural membrane function and could arise from alterations in transmembrane proteins and from electrolysis‐related changes in [H+] induced by exposure to constant electric field.

Theoretical investigation of transcranial alternating current stimulation using laminar model

This study uses a finite element modelling (FEM) technique to investigate the penetration and focality of tACs in comparison to a time invariant (DC) stimulation and shows that AC stimulations generate cerebral fields that are an order of magnitude larger in the radial direction, approximately 5 times bigger in the tangential direction and more focused than DC stimulations.

Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Enhances Individual Alpha Activity in Human EEG

The present findings are the first direct electrophysiological evidence of an interaction of tACS and ongoing oscillatory activity in the human cortex and show its potential both at fostering knowledge on the functional significance of brain oscillations and for therapeutic application.

Lasting modulation of in vitro oscillatory activity with weak direct current stimulation.

It is proposed that altered synaptic efficacy in excitatory and inhibitory pathways could be the source of lasting effects on endogenous neural activity via physiological plasticity in hippocampal rat slices after prolonged constant current stimulation.