Complex light trapping structures make it challenging to simulate the optical properties of solar cells accurately. In this paper, a framework is proposed where matrices are used to describe the transition of the angular distribution of the light when it is reflected, transmitted or absorbed. The matrices can be computed using a range of different simulation methods and when parts of a complex structure are to be optimized, or the incident light is altered, the pre-computed matrices can be used with the potential benefit of saving computational time. The optical properties of silicon wafers with different texturing, surface coatings and light incident angles were simulated and compared with measurements to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed framework. It is shown that different simulation methods can be effectively integrated to model different parts of the solar cell and structures with multiple coherent and incoherent layers. These features enable efficient and rapid evaluation of the optical properties of the device as a function of its physical properties.