Angular distribution of Bremsstrahlung photons and of positrons for calculations of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and positron beams

@article{Kohn2014AngularDO,
  title={Angular distribution of Bremsstrahlung photons and of positrons for calculations of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and positron beams},
  author={Christoph Kohn and Ute Ebert},
  journal={Atmospheric Research},
  year={2014},
  volume={135},
  pages={432-465}
}
The importance of electron-electron bremsstrahlung for terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron beams and electron-positron beams
Thunderstorms emit terrestrial gamma-ray flashes with photon energies of up to tens of MeV and electron-positron beams that are created by photons with energies above 1.022 MeV. These photons are
Energy resolved positron and hadron spectrum produced by a negative stepped lightning leader
Gamma-ray flashes with quantum energies up to 40 MeV and beams of electrons and positrons have been detected by satellites above thunderclouds. We here adopt the model of an upward moving negative
Calculation of beams of positrons, neutrons, and protons associated with terrestrial gamma ray flashes
Positron beams have been observed by the Fermi satellite to be correlated with lightning leaders, and neutron emissions have been attributed to lightning and to laboratory sparks as well. Here we
Production mechanisms of leptons, photons, and hadrons and their possible feedback close to lightning leaders
TLDR
The feedback mechanism together with the field enhancement by lightning leaders yields particle energies even above 40 MeV measurable at satellite altitudes, because of their high rest mass hadrons are measurable on a longer time scale than leptons and photons.
The structure of ionization showers in air generated by electrons with 1 MeV energy or less
Ionization showers are created in the Earth's atmosphere by cosmic particles or by run-away electrons from pulsed discharges or by the decay of radioactive elements like radon and krypton. These
Electron-positron pairs and radioactive nuclei production by irradiation of high-Z target with \gamma-photon flash generated by an ultra-intense laser in the $\lambda^3$ regime
This paper studies the interaction of laser-driven γ-photons and high energy charged particles with high-Z targets through Monte-Carlo simulations. The interacting particles are taken from
The Emission of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes From Encountering Streamer Coronae Associated to the Breakdown of Lightning Leaders
Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are beams of high‐energy photons associated to lightning. These photons are the bremsstrahlung of energetic electrons whose origin is currently explained by two
Analyzing x-ray emissions from meter-scale negative discharges in ambient air
When voltage pulses of 1 MV drive meter long air discharges, short and intense bursts of x-rays are measured. Here we develop a model for electron acceleration and subsequent photon generation within
X-ray diagnostics of ECR ion sources-Techniques, results, and challenges.
The high magnetic confinement provided by the minimum-B structure of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) hosts a non-equilibrium plasma, composed of cold multi-charged ions and hot
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