Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists in the treatment of heart failure caused by left ventricular systolic dysfunction.


Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in left ventricular systolic dysfunction is a critically important determinant in the pathophysiologic processes that lead to progression of heart failure and sudden death. Angiotensin II, acting at the specific angiotensin receptor (AT1-R), activates a series of intracellular signaling sequences… (More)


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