Angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene polymorphism and heart failure: a case-control study.

  title={Angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene polymorphism and heart failure: a case-control study.},
  author={Loredana Covolo and Umberto Gelatti and Marco Metra and Francesco Di Donato and Savina Nodari and Natalia L Pezzali and Livio Dei Cas and Giuseppe Nardi},
  journal={Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals},
  volume={8 5},
Heart failure (HF) is the final outcome of virtually all cardiovascular diseases and is a major and increasingly serious public health problem. The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has attracted significant attention; it has been extensively investigated in a spectrum of cardiovascular phenotypes because of its correlation with serum ACE activity. There… CONTINUE READING