BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis has been shown to generate collateral vessels from the extracranial-to-intracranial circulation in patients with Moyamoya disease and intracranial arterial steno-occlusive disease. The mechanisms involved are not well-understood. We hypothesized that angiogenesis is the leading mechanism forming collaterals after encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis because there are no pre-existing connections. Angiogenesis-generated collaterals should exhibit higher architectural complexity compared with innate collaterals. MATERIALS AND METHODS Pre- and postoperative digital subtraction angiograms were analyzed in patients enrolled in a prospective trial of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis surgery. Branching angioscore, tortuosity index, and local connected fractal dimension were compared between innate and postoperative collaterals. RESULTS One hundred one angiograms (50 preoperative, 51 postoperative) were analyzed from 44 patients (22 with intracranial atherosclerosis and 22 with Moyamoya disease). There was a significantly higher median branching angioscore (13 versus 4, P < .001) and a lower median tortuosity index (1.08 versus 1.76, P < .001) in the encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis collaterals compared with innate collaterals. Higher mean local fractal dimension peaks (1.28 ± 0.1 versus 1.16 ± 0.11, P < .001) were observed in the encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis collaterals compared with innate collaterals for both intracranial atherosclerosis (P < .001) and Moyamoya disease (P < .001) groups. The observed increase in high connectivity was greater in the intracranial atherosclerosis group compared with patients with Moyamoya disease (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS The higher median branching angioscore and local connected fractal dimension, along with the lower median tortuosity index of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis collaterals, are consistent with the greater complexity observed in the process of sprouting and splitting associated with angiogenesis.