Androgens and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women: a systematic review

@article{Spoletini2014AndrogensAC,
  title={Androgens and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women: a systematic review},
  author={Ilaria Spoletini and Cristiana Vitale and Francesco Pelliccia and Chiara Fossati and Giuseppe M C Rosano},
  journal={Climacteric},
  year={2014},
  volume={17},
  pages={625 - 634}
}
Abstract Androgens play a pivotal role in cardiovascular function and their effects differ between men and women. In postmenopausal women, testosterone replacement within physiological levels is associated with overall well-being. However, a definitive explanation as to how androgens have an impact on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women and whether they may be used for cardiovascular treatment has yet to be established. With these aims, a systematic review of the existing studies on… 
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Most studies indicate that low levels of circulating testosterone are associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease in the general population; the causality, however, of this association remains to be proven.
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Clinical trials suggest that exogenous testosterone enhances cognitive performance and improves musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women and unmet needs include the availability of approved testosterone formulations for women and studies to elucidate the contribution of testosterone to cardiovascular, cognitive, and musculosity health and the risk of cancer.
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It is suggested that short-term physiological testosterone does not adversely affect arterial stiffness and may improve markers of endothelial function and testosterone use was associated with reductions in HDL cholesterol and lipoprotein, but whether this has significant long-term CV effects remains unclear.
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Hormone therapy in both sexes proved to be important for the improvement of organic functions and quality of life, as well as showed a bias in reducing cardiovascular events.
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Although testosterone (T) is known for being the major sex hormone in males, androgens circulate at relatively high levels also in women throughout their lifespan, playing an important role in
Sex Steroids, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Cardiovascular Health in Men and Postmenopausal Women: The Rotterdam Study.
TLDR
OCH was associated with sex steroids and with SHBG in both men and women and the complexity and temporality of the interrelation between sex steroids, SHBG, and cardiovascular health requires further investigation.
Androgen Therapy in Women.
TLDR
Most randomized placebo-controlled trials show an improvement in sexual function with low-dose testosterone therapy in select postmenopausal women with HSDD, and this strategy appears to be safe in the short term.
Androgens in premenopausal women and women with premature ovarian insufficiency
  • S. Davis
  • Medicine
    Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society
  • 2021
TLDR
Available evidence does not support the prescription of testosterone to prevent cardiometabolic disease, bone loss, sarcopenia, or cognitive decline or to improve well-being and low mood in postmenopausal women.
Menopausal Hormone Therapy: a Comprehensive Review
TLDR
Healthcare providers need to be aware of the current options for MHT, current indications, contraindications, long-term ASCVD risks, and nonhormonal options for high-risk women.
Androgens in postmenopausal women: a review
Abstract There is significant interest in the use of androgen therapy for postmenopausal women. This review provides background on endogenous androgens in women, describes factors that affect
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