Androgen action blockade does not result in reduction in size but changes histology of the normal human prostate

@article{deVoogt1987AndrogenAB,
  title={Androgen action blockade does not result in reduction in size but changes histology of the normal human prostate},
  author={Herman J. de Voogt and B. Ramanath Rao and Albert A. Geldof and L. J. G. Gooren and F. G. Bouman},
  journal={The Prostate},
  year={1987},
  volume={11}
}
The effect of androgen blockade on the normal human prostate was studied in 16 healthy volunteers opting for male‐to‐female gender reassignment. Their ages ranged from 19 to 27 years. After 8 weeks of treatment with Anandron, serum hormone levels indicated antiandrogenic action and physical signs of feminization appeared. Prostate volumes (measured by ultrasound) before and following Anandron treatment remained the same. After 18 months of treatment with cyproterone‐acetate and ethinyl… 
Efficacy and advantages in the use of low doses of anandron and estrogen combination in the treatment of prostate cancer
TLDR
It is suggested that low doses of Anandron and estrogen can effectively be combined as a complete androgen counteracting therapy for hormone‐dependent prostatic carcinoma with minimal undesired side effects.
Effect of the addition of estrogen to medical castration on prostatic size, symptoms, histology and serum prostate specific antigen in 4 men with benign prostatic hypertrophy.
TLDR
It is postulated that the target cell for estrogen action in the prostate is the prostatic basal cell, and in the absence of androgen the only direct effect of estrogens is the induction of squamous metaplasia.
Endocrine treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy: current concepts.
TLDR
The combination of an antiandrogenic and antiestrogenic effect is theoretically promising in the treatment of human BPH and a good hormonal treatment that will be both scientifically sound, and clinically safe and effective seems feasible in the near future.
Androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors in normal and aging prostates
TLDR
The chronological changes in the levels and distribution of steroid hormone receptors in normal prostatic tissue and the effect of such changes on the synthesis of growth factors, growth factor receptors, and oncogenes should be investigated.
Serum prostate-antigen levels in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy treated with leuprolide.
TLDR
It is concluded that treatment with a GnRH analogue caused reversible involution of prostatic epithelial cells with parallel effects on serum PSA levels which paralleled the decrease in prostate size.
Elevated estrogen receptor expression in human prostatic stromal cells by androgen ablation therapy.
TLDR
The specimens of patients treated with androgen blockade showed atrophic changes of the gland as well as basal cell hyperplasia, features characteristic for this therapy, and androgen deprivation leads to an upregulation of stromal ER expression in human prostate.
HORMONAL REGULATION OF PROSTATE SPEClFlC ANTIGEN AND HUMAN GLANDULAR KALLlKRElN IN MALES AND FEMALES IN VIVO : EFFECTS OF ANDROGENS AND ANTIANDROGENS ON PLASMA AND URINARY PSA AND HK 2 LEVELS
The PSA and hK2 genes are known to be regulated by androgens and progestins in vitro. To detennine if this also occurs in vivo, plasma and urinary PSA and hK2 were immunoassayed in 32 fernale-to-male
Functional Morphology of Prostate Gland
TLDR
These studies will advance the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and identify the biological mechanisms that hold the growing process under control.
Dramatic suppression of plasma and urinary prostate specific antigen and human glandular kallikrein by antiandrogens in male-to-female transsexuals.
TLDR
Cyproterone acetate, a steroidal antiandrogen, alone or with estradiol was able to suppress greater than 90% of plasma and urinary PSA and hK2 concentration after 4 or 12 months of therapy.
Effects of combination endocrine treatment on normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and prostatic adenocarcinoma.
TLDR
CET before radical prostatectomy causes regressive epithelial changes together with enhanced apoptosis and blocked mitotic activity and a differential effect on the non-neoplastic prostate was observed.
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