Ancient woodlands: modern threats.

  title={Ancient woodlands: modern threats.},
  author={Oliver Rackham},
  journal={The New phytologist},
  volume={180 3},
This review discusses the following adverse influences on long-established forests, wood-pastures, and savannas in Europe and other continents: destruction and fragmentation; depletion; pollution and eutrophication; fire and lack of fire; excessive shade; excessive numbers of deer; invasive species and cultivars; infilling of savanna; climate change; and globalization of plant diseases. Human influences on the world's mainland forests and savannas have been pervasive throughout the Holocene, to… CONTINUE READING
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