Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America

@article{Mitchell2016AncientMD,
  title={Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America},
  author={Kieren J. Mitchell and Sarah C Bray and Pere Bover and Leopoldo Soibelzon and Blaine W. Schubert and Francisco Juan Prevosti and Alfredo Prieto and Fabiana Mar{\'i}a Martin and Jeremy J. Austin and Alan Cooper},
  journal={Biology Letters},
  year={2016},
  volume={12}
}
The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear… 
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