Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

  title={Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans},
  author={Iosif Lazaridis and Nick J. Patterson and Alissa Mittnik and Gabriel Renaud and Swapan Mallick and Karola Kirsanow and Peter H. Sudmant and Joshua G. Schraiber and Sergio Castellano and Mark Lipson and Bonnie Berger and Christos Economou and Ruth Bollongino and Qiaomei Fu and Kirsten I. Bos and Susanne Nordenfelt and Heng Li and Cesare de Filippo and Kay Pr{\"u}fer and Susanna Sawyer and Cosimo Posth and Wolfgang Haak and Fredrik Hallgren and Elin Fornander and Nadin Rohland and Dominique Delsate and Michael Francken and Jean-Michel Guinet and Joachim Wahl and George Ayodo and Hamza A. Babiker and G Baillet and Elena V. Balanovska and Oleg P. Balanovsky and Ramiro Barrantes and Gabriel Bedoya and Haim Ben-Ami and Judit Bene and Fouad Berrada and Claudio Marcelo Bravi and Francesca Brisighelli and George B. J. Busby and Francesco Cal{\`i} and Mikhail I. Churnosov and David E. C. Cole and Daniel Corach and Larissa D. Damba and George van Driem and Stanislav V Dryomov and Jean Michel Dugoujon and Sardana A. Fedorova and Irene Gallego Romero and Marija Gubina and Michael F. Hammer and Brenna M. Henn and Torgeir Helvig and Uğur Hodoğlugil and Aashish R. Jha and Sena Karachanak-Yankova and Rita I. Khusainova and Elza K. Khusnutdinova and Rick A. Kittles and Toomas Kivisild and William Klitz and Vaidutis Ku{\vc}inskas and Alena Kushniarevich and Leila Laredj and Sergey Litvinov and Theologos Loukidis and Robert W. Mahley and B{\'e}la Melegh and Ene Metspalu and Julio A Molina and Joanna L. Mountain and Klemetti N{\"a}kk{\"a}l{\"a}j{\"a}rvi and Desislava N Nesheva and Thomas Nyambo and L. P. Osipova and Jüri Parik and Fedor A. Platonov and Olga L Posukh and Valentino Romano and Francisco Rothhammer and Igor Rudan and Ruslan Ruizbakiev and Hovhannes Sahakyan and Antti Sajantila and Antonio Salas and Elena B. Starikovskaya and Ayele Tarekegn and Draga Toncheva and Shahlo Turdikulova and Ingrida Uktverytė and O. M. Utevska and Ren{\'e} V{\'a}squez and Mercedes Villena and Mikhail Ivanovich Voevoda and Cheryl A. Winkler and Levon Yepiskoposyan and Pierre A. Zalloua and Tatijana Zemunik and Alan Cooper and Cristian Capelli and Mark George Thomas and Andr{\'e}s Ruiz-Linares and Sarah A. Tishkoff and Lalji Singh and Kumarasamy Thangaraj and Richard Villems and David Comas and Rem I. Sukernik and Mait Metspalu and Matthias Meyer and Evan E. Eichler and Joachim Burger and Montgomery Slatkin and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo and Janet Kelso and David Reich and Johannes Krause},
  pages={409 - 413}
We sequenced the genomes of a ∼7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight ∼8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians, who contributed to… 
Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago
The first modern human population divergence time is estimated to be between 350,000 and 260,000 years ago, which increases the deepest divergence among modern humans, coinciding with anatomical developments of archaic humans intomodern humans, as represented in the local fossil record.
Ancient genomes from present-day France unveil 7,000 years of its demographic history
The population structure from the Mesolithic to the Iron Age in France is shown and the changing frequency of genotypes associated with phenotypic traits is traced, showing the presence of Magdalenian-associated ancestry beyond the Iberian Peninsula in the Late Paleolithic.
Genomic structure in Europeans dating back at least 36,200 years
The findings reveal the timing of divergence of western Eurasians and East Asians to be more than 36,200 years ago and that European genomic structure today dates back to the Upper Paleolithic and derives from a metapopulation that at times stretched from Europe to central Asia.
Reconstructing Genetic History of Siberian and Northeastern European Populations
Siberia and Western Russia are home to over 40 culturally and linguistically diverse indigenous ethnic groups. Yet, genetic variation of peoples from this region is largely uncharacterized. We
Ancient genome-wide DNA from France highlights the complexity of interactions between Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers
Using the genetic substructure observed in European hunter-gatherers, diverse patterns of admixture in different regions are characterized, consistent with both routes of expansion, which highlight the complexity of the biological interactions during the Neolithic expansion by revealing major regional variations.
Reconstructing genetic history of Siberian and Northeastern European populations.
It is found that Siberian and East Asian populations shared 38% of their ancestry with a 45,000-yr-old Ust'-Ishim individual who was previously believed to have no modern-day descendants.
Ancient Fennoscandian genomes reveal origin and spread of Siberian ancestry in Europe
It is shown that the genetic makeup of northern Europe was shaped by migrations from Siberia that began at least 3500 years ago, and Siberian ancestry was subsequently admixed into many modern populations in the region, particularly into populations speaking Uralic languages today.
A genome sequence from a modern human skull over 45,000 years old from Zlatý kůň in Czechia
A genome generated from the skull of a female individual from Zlatý kůň, Czechia is analysed and it is found that she belonged to a population that appears to have contributed genetically neither to later Europeans nor to Asians, and is one of the earliest Eurasian inhabitants following the expansion out of Africa.
Genome-scale sequencing and analysis of human, wolf, and bison DNA from 25,000-year-old sediment


Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites
It is found that 25% of the Neolithic farmers had one characteristic mtDNA type and that this type formerly was widespread among Neolithic Farmers in Central Europe and this finding lends weight to a proposed Paleolithic ancestry for modern Europeans.
The genetic prehistory of southern Africa
It is found that all individuals derive at least a few percent of their genomes from admixture with non-Khoisan populations that began ∼1,200 years ago, supporting the hypothesis of an ancient link between southern and eastern Africa.
Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa
Genome-wide genetic data is used to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter–gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants) and that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa.
DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China
The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans.
Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia
We present the high-quality genome sequence of a ∼45,000-year-old modern human male from Siberia. This individual derives from a population that lived before—or simultaneously with—the separation of
Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans
The findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans.
An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia
It is shown that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago, which is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25, thousands of years ago.
Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European
An approximately 7,000-year-old Mesolithic skeleton discovered at the La Braña-Arintero site in León, Spain, is sequenceed to retrieve a complete pre-agricultural European human genome, providing evidence that a significant number of derived, putatively adaptive variants associated with pathogen resistance in modern Europeans were already present in this hunter-gatherer.
Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe
Comparing genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions.
Origins and Genetic Legacy of Neolithic Farmers and Hunter-Gatherers in Europe
The results suggest that migration from southern Europe catalyzed the spread of agriculture and that admixture in the wake of this expansion eventually shaped the genomic landscape of modern-day Europe.