Ancient hepatitis B viruses from the Bronze Age to the Medieval period

@article{Mhlemann2018AncientHB,
  title={Ancient hepatitis B viruses from the Bronze Age to the Medieval period},
  author={Barbara M{\"u}hlemann and Terry C. Jones and Peter de Barros Damgaard and Morten E. Allentoft and I. V. Shevnina and Andrey Logvin and E. R. Usmanova and Irina P. Panyushkina and Bazartseren Boldgiv and Tsevel Bazartseren and Kadicha Tashbaeva and Victor Merz and Nina Lau and Vaclav Smrcka and Dmitry Voyakin and Egor Kitov and Andrey Epimakhov and Dalia D. Pokutta and Magdolna Vicze and Trevor D. Price and Vyacheslav Moiseyev and Anders Johannes Hansen and Ludovic Orlando and Simon Rasmussen and Martin Sikora and Lasse Vinner and Albert D M E Osterhaus and Derek J. Smith and Dieter Glebe and Ron A. M. Fouchier and Christian Drosten and Karl-G{\"o}ran Sj{\"o}gren and Kristian Kristiansen and Eske Willerslev},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2018},
  volume={557},
  pages={418-423}
}
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of human hepatitis. There is considerable uncertainty about the timescale of its evolution and its association with humans. Here we present 12 full or partial ancient HBV genomes that are between approximately 0.8 and 4.5 thousand years old. The ancient sequences group either within or in a sister relationship with extant human or other ape HBV clades. Generally, the genome properties follow those of modern HBV. The root of the HBV tree is projected to… 
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