Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals

@article{Kuhlwilm2016AncientGF,
  title={Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals},
  author={Martin Kuhlwilm and Ilan Gronau and Melissa J. Hubisz and Cesare de Filippo and Javier Prado-Martinez and Martin Kircher and Qiaomei Fu and Hern{\'a}n A. Burbano and Carles Lalueza-Fox and Marco de la Rasilla and Antonio Rosas and Pavao Rudan and Dejana Brajkovi{\'c} and Željko Ku{\'c}an and Ivan Gu{\vs}i{\'c} and Tom{\'a}s Marqu{\`e}s-Bonet and Aida M. Andr{\'e}s and Bence Viola and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo and Matthias Meyer and Adam C. Siepel and Sergio Castellano},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2016},
  volume={530},
  pages={429-433}
}
It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000–65,000 years ago. Here we analyse the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By… 
Nuclear DNA from two early Neandertals reveals 80,000 years of genetic continuity in Europe
TLDR
Nasa retrieved nuclear genomic sequences from two Neandertals, one from Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave in Germany and the other from Scladina Cave in Belgium, who lived around 120,000 years ago, revealing the deep population history of European Ne andertals.
Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals
TLDR
It is demonstrated that a complete Neanderthal mtDNA replacement is feasible over this time interval even with minimal hominin introgression, and the highly divergent HST branch is indicative of greater mtDNA diversity during the Middle Pleistocene than in later periods.
Neandertals revised
TLDR
Genetic evidence and archeological data show that the biological and cultural gaps between these populations were probably smaller than previously thought, and falsify inferences that Neandertals were outliers in terms of behavioral complexity in Africa.
Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent
TLDR
It is concluded that multiple, genetically differentiated hunter-gatherer populations adopted farming in southwestern Asia, that components of pre-Neolithic population structure were preserved as farming spread into neighboring regions, and that the Zagros region was the cradle of eastward expansion.
Archaic hominin introgression into modern human genomes.
  • O. Gokcumen
  • Biology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2019
TLDR
This review aims to answer anthropologically relevant questions with regard to recent research on ancient hominin introgression in the human lineage, including how have genomic data from archaic hominins changed the authors' view of human evolution.
Modern human incursion into Neanderthal territories 54,000 years ago at Mandrin, France
Determining the extent of overlap between modern humans and other hominins in Eurasia, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, is fundamental to understanding the nature of their interactions and what
Archaic admixture in human history.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 45 REFERENCES
An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor
TLDR
DNA from a 37,000–42,000-year-old modern human from Peştera cu Oase, Romania is analysed, finding that on the order of 6–9% of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date.
The Date of Interbreeding between Neandertals and Modern Humans
TLDR
The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the genomes of present-day Europeans is measured and it is found that the last gene flow from Neandertals (or their relatives) into Europeans likely occurred 37,000–86,000 years before the present (BP), and most likely 47,000-65,000 year ago.
Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia
TLDR
A tooth found in Denisova Cave carries a mitochondrial genome highly similar to that of the finger bone, further indicating that Denisovans have an evolutionary history distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans.
DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China
TLDR
The nuclear DNA sequences determined from this early modern human reveal that the Tianyuan individual derived from a population that was ancestral to many present-day Asians and Native Americans but postdated the divergence of Asians from Europeans.
A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome
TLDR
The genomic data suggest that Neandertals mixed with modern human ancestors some 120,000 years ago, leaving traces of Ne andertal DNA in contemporary humans, suggesting that gene flow from Neand Bertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.
Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia
We present the high-quality genome sequence of a ∼45,000-year-old modern human male from Siberia. This individual derives from a population that lived before—or simultaneously with—the separation of
Targeted Investigation of the Neandertal Genome by Array-Based Sequence Capture
TLDR
It is shown that hybridization capture on microarrays can successfully recover more than a megabase of target regions from Neandertal DNA even in the presence of ~99.8% microbial DNA.
Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa
TLDR
Genome-wide genetic data is used to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter–gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants) and that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa.
The genomic landscape of Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans
TLDR
The results suggest that part of the explanation for genomic regions of reduced Neanderthal ancestry is Neanderthal alleles that caused decreased fertility in males when moved to a modern human genetic background.
Bayesian inference of ancient human demography from individual genome sequences
TLDR
This work used a Bayesian, coalescent-based approach to obtain information about ancestral population sizes, divergence times and migration rates from inferred genealogies at many neutrally evolving loci across the genome.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...