Ancient Igneous Intrusions and Early Expansion of the Moon Revealed by GRAIL Gravity Gradiometry

@article{AndrewsHanna2013AncientII,
  title={Ancient Igneous Intrusions and Early Expansion of the Moon Revealed by GRAIL Gravity Gradiometry},
  author={Jeffrey C. Andrews‐Hanna and Sami W. Asmar and James W. Head and Walter S. Kiefer and Alex S. Konopliv and Frank LeMoine and Isamu Matsuyama and Erwan M. Mazarico and Patrick J. McGovern and H. Jay Melosh and Gregory A. Neumann and Francis Nimmo and Roger J. Phillips and David E. Smith and Sean C. Solomon and G. Jeffrey Taylor and Mark A. Wieczorek and James G. Williams and Maria T. Zuber},
  journal={Science},
  year={2013},
  volume={339},
  pages={675 - 678}
}
The Holy GRAIL? The gravity field of a planet provides a view of its interior and thermal history by revealing areas of different density. GRAIL, a pair of satellites that act as a highly sensitive gravimeter, began mapping the Moon's gravity in early 2012. Three papers highlight some of the results from the primary mission. Zuber et al. (p. 668, published online 6 December) discuss the overall gravity field, which reveals several new tectonic and geologic features of the Moon. Impacts have… 
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Gravity Field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission
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Ring faults and ring dikes around the Orientale basin on the Moon.
Internal Structure/Mantle Motions of the Moon
Over the years since the Apollo era, the current lunar interior structure has been investigated using seismic, gravity, and magnetic field data. The Apollo seismic network recorded about 1,800
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The Crust of the Moon as Seen by GRAIL
TLDR
The Moon's gravity field shows that the lunar crust is less dense and more porous than was thought, and high-resolution gravity data obtained from the dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft show that the bulk density of the Moon's highlands crust is substantially lower than generally assumed.
Gravity Field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission
TLDR
The Moon's gravity field reveals that impacts have homogenized the density of the crust and fractured it extensively, and GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies.
Volcanic rifting at Martian grabens
[1] A large fraction of surface extension on Mars occurred at segmented grabens having width/length ratios akin to oceanic rifts on Earth. Association with volcanic landforms such as pit craters
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[1] New maps of kilometer-scale topographic roughness and concavity of the Moon reveal a very distinctive roughness signature of the proximal ejecta deposits of the Orientale basin (the Hevelius
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Large shield volcanoes and calderas are not observed on the Moon. Theoretical assessments show that melt ascending from the mantle will stall at rheological traps or at the shallower density trap at
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[1] A new magnetic map of the Moon, based on Lunar Prospector magnetometer observations, sheds light on the origin of the South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest of the recognized lunar
Rock types of South Pole‐Aitken basin and extent of basaltic volcanism
The enormous pre-Nectarian South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin represents a geophysically and compositionally unique region on the Moon. We present and analyze the mineralogical diversity across this basin
An Impactor Origin for Lunar Magnetic Anomalies
TLDR
It is shown that the most prominent grouping of anomalies can be explained by highly magnetic extralunar materials from the projectile that formed the largest and oldest impact crater on the Moon: the South Pole–Aitken basin.
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