Ancient Geodynamics and Global-Scale Hydrology on Mars

@article{Phillips2001AncientGA,
  title={Ancient Geodynamics and Global-Scale Hydrology on Mars},
  author={Roger J. Phillips and Maria T. Zuber and Sean C. Solomon and Matthew P. Golombek and Bruce M. Jakosky and William Bruce Banerdt and David E. Smith and Rebecca M. E. Williams and Brian M. Hynek and Oded Aharonson and Steven Hauck II},
  journal={Science},
  year={2001},
  volume={291},
  pages={2587 - 2591}
}
Loading of the lithosphere of Mars by the Tharsis rise explains much of the global shape and long-wavelength gravity field of the planet, including a ring of negative gravity anomalies and a topographic trough around Tharsis, as well as gravity anomaly and topographic highs centered in Arabia Terra and extending northward toward Utopia. The Tharsis-induced trough and antipodal high were largely in place by the end of the Noachian Epoch and exerted control on the location and orientation of… 

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Tharsis swell represents the largest area of volcanism on Mars and sits adjacent to the dichotomy between the northern lowlands and southern highlands. While a number of investigators have proposed

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The rotational figure of Mars (that is, its equilibrium shape) and its surface topography before Tharsis formed, when the spin axis of the planet was controlled by the difference in elevation between the northern and southern hemispheres (hemispheric dichotomy), is calculated.

Variations in Martian Lithospheric Strength Based on Gravity/Topography Analysis

We applied localized gravity/topography admittance and correlation analysis, as well as the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, to invert for loading and flexural parameters of 21 subregions on Mars
...

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