Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses

  title={Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses},
  author={Jaime Lira and Anna Linderholm and Carme Ol{\'a}ria and Mikael Brandstr{\"o}m Durling and M. Thomas P. Gilbert and Hans Ellegren and Eske Willerslev and Kerstin Lid{\'e}n and Juan Luis Arsuaga and Anders G{\"o}therstr{\"o}m},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
Multiple geographical regions have been proposed for the domestication of Equus caballus. [] Key Method To test this hypothesis, we analysed mitochondrial DNA from 22 ancient Iberian horse remains belonging to the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Middle Ages, against previously published sequences. Only the medieval Iberian sequence appeared in the D1 group. Neolithic and Bronze Age sequences grouped in other clusters, one of which (Lusitano group C) is exclusively represented by modern horses of Iberian…

Ancient DNA shows domestic horses were introduced in the southern Caucasus and Anatolia during the Bronze Age

Paleogenetics reveals that imported domestic horses replaced native wild ones in Transcaucasia and Anatolia before 2000 BCE, and argues strongly against autochthonous independent domestication of horses in Anatolia.

Mitochondrial genomes from modern horses reveal the major haplogroups that underwent domestication

Now that the major horse haplogroups have been defined, each with diagnostic mutational motifs (in both the coding and control regions), these haplotypes could be easily used to classify well-preserved ancient remains, assess the haplogroup variation of modern breeds, and evaluate the possible role of mtDNA backgrounds in racehorse performance.

Comparative genetic analysis of subfossil wild horses (from the Neolithic Age and Early Bronze Age) and present-day domestic horses from Bulgaria

The results show the presence of the Q (in equus germanicus from the early neolithic of nW Bulgaria) and G (G1) (in e. ferus from the e. neolithic and the Bronze Age of Bulgaria) haplogroups, which gives ground to support the polyphyletic hypothesis for the origin of the domestic horse.

Origin and History of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Domestic Horses

At least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years, suggesting the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability.

Analysis of the earliest complete mtDNA genome of a Caribbean colonial horse (Equus caballus) from 16th-century Haiti

The mitochondrial genome of a late 16th century horse from the Spanish colonial site of Puerto Real (northern Haiti) represents the earliest complete mitogenome of a post-Columbian domestic horse in the Western Hemisphere offering a unique opportunity to clarify the phylogeographic history of this species in the Americas.

Haplotype diversity in mitochondrial DNA reveals the multiple origins of Tibetan horse

It is demonstrated that modern Tibetan horse breeds originated from the introgression of local wild horses with exotic domesticated populations outside China.

Animals from Prehistoric time to Thracian epoch Wild horses-Earliest horse domestication – Thracian horses (a project of the National Museum of Natural History, Sofia as a part of the BAS project: The Thracians)

The results show the presence of the Q (in equus germanicus from the early neolithic of nW Bulgaria) and G (G1) (in e. ferus from the e. neolithic and the Bronze Age of Bulgaria) haplogroups, which gives ground to support the polyphyletic hypothesis for the origin of the domestic horse.

Mitochondrial diversity in mountain horse population from the South-Eastern Europe

Analyses of the horse breeds reveal preserved genetic profile of the Balkan and the Rhodopes mountains populations, and a Rila-Pirin breed unexpectedly showed mixed profile – a massive genetic introgression with an Asiatic-type haplogroups.

The Status Problem of Iberian Holocene Equids: New Data from Cueva de El Mirador (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)

Equid remains are scarce and very fragmented in Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age sites. Evidence suggesting that horses were domesticated does exist, but it is often inconclusive, thus leaving the



Iberian origins of New World horse breeds.

Although, the results show that the Iberian and New World breeds stem from multiple origins, they are consistent with historical documentation, and a set of genetic data revealing a high frequency of Iberia haplotypes in New World races is presented, which is consistent with Historical documentation.

The origins of Iberian horses assessed via mitochondrial DNA.

The results suggest that Northern Iberian ponies--which are phenotypically close to British ponies, especially Exmoor--are the result of an introgression rather than population replacement, which supports the close genetic relationship between the ancestral mare populations of the Iberia Peninsula and Northern Africa.

Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle.

mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain showed the haplotype T1, of African origin, which indicates prehistoric African-Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures.

Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse

The extensive genetic diversity of these 77 ancestral mares leads us to conclude that several distinct horse populations were involved in the domestication of the horse.

Phylogenetic relationships of Argentinean Creole horses and other South American and Spanish breeds inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

To establish the relationship between Argentinean and Spanish horses, a portion of the mitochondrial D-loop of 104 animals belonging to nine South American and Spanish breeds was analysed using SSCP and DNA sequencing and the variability found both within and between breeds was very high.

Early history of European domestic cattle as revealed by ancient DNA

Interestingly, the dominant Central European pattern, a starburst phylogeny around the modal sequence, T3, has a Neolithic origin, and the reduced diversity within this cluster in the ancient samples accords with their shorter history of post-domestic accumulation of mutation.

The Lusitano horse maternal lineage based on mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation.

The analysis of mitochondrial D-loop sequences from 145 Lusitano founder mares yielded a total of 27 different haplotypes, which support the hypothesis of multiple domestication events in many distinct geographic areas over a broad time span.

Morphological Convergence in Hippidion and Equus (Amerhippus) South American Equids Elucidated by Ancient DNA Analysis

DNA analysis reveals that a very Hippidion-like metapod might also have been possessed by another South American equid, i.e., Equus (Amerhippus), an interpretation supported by complementary anatomical observations that may lead paleontologists to limb bone misidentification.

Evolution, Systematics, and Phylogeography of Pleistocene Horses in the New World: A Molecular Perspective

It is shown that stilt-legged horses, commonly regarded as Old World migrants related to the hemionid asses of Asia, were in fact an endemic North American lineage, and the data suggest that there were fewer horse species in late Pleistocene North America than have been named on morphological grounds.