Ancient DNA

@article{Hofreiter2001AncientD,
  title={Ancient DNA},
  author={Michael Hofreiter and David Serre and Hendrik N. Poinar and Melanie Kuch and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo},
  journal={Nature Reviews Genetics},
  year={2001},
  volume={2},
  pages={353-359}
}
DNA that has been recovered from archaeological and palaeontological remains makes it possible to go back in time and study the genetic relationships of extinct organisms to their contemporary relatives. This provides a new perspective on the evolution of organisms and DNA sequences. However, the field is fraught with technical pitfalls and needs stringent criteria to ensure the reliability of results, particularly when human remains are studied. 

Figures from this paper

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TLDR
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TLDR
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DNA of animals whose skins furnished the parchment pages of ancient and medieval books may survive in that parchment, enabling not only to determine the species of the animal from which the skin had been taken, but moreover, it might even be possible to reconstitute the history of the herds from which they originated.
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TLDR
Two sets of conserved primers are reported that allow the amplification of the entire DNA barcoding region in either three or five overlapping fragments, which allow the recovery of DNA barcodes from valuable historical specimens that in many cases are unique in that they are unable or unlikely to be collected again.
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TLDR
The mt-genome sequence of sifaka is obtained, the phylogeny of primates is estimated, and the evolutionary rate acceleration occurred in the Anthropoids lineage after they diverged from tarsier.
Evaluating bacterial pathogen DNA preservation in museum osteological collections
TLDR
Samples from 59 eighteenth and twentieth century individuals known to have been infected with either Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Treponema pallidum were analysed and no reproducible evidence of surviving pathogen DNA was obtained, despite the use of extraction and PCR-amplification methods determined to be highly sensitive.
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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TLDR
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