Anatomy of mole external genitalia: Setting the record straight

  title={Anatomy of mole external genitalia: Setting the record straight},
  author={Adriane Sinclair and Stephen E. Glickman and Laurence S. Baskin and Gerald R. Cunha},
  journal={The Anatomical Record},
Anatomy of male and female external genitalia of adult mice (Mus musculus) and broad‐footed moles (Scapanus latimanus) was re‐examined to provide more meaningful anatomical terminology. In the past the perineal appendage of male broad‐footed moles has been called the penis, while the female perineal appendage has been given several terms (e.g. clitoris, penile clitoris, peniform clitoris and others). Histological examination demonstrates that perineal appendages of male and female broad‐footed… 
Comparative Morphology of the Penis and Clitoris in Four Species of Moles (Talpidae)
P phylogenetic affinity and the presence/absence of ovotestes are poor predictors for most sex differentiation features within mole external genitalia.
Clitoral development in the mouse and human.
Anatomy of the mouse penis and internal prepuce.
Androgen-independent events in penile development in humans and animals.
The gross anatomy of the male reproductive system of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus Europaeus).
This study was carried out on five adult male European hedgehogs euthanased in a chloroform chamber and found that the vesicular, prostate gland ducts and ductus deferens as well as urethra separately were discharged in a diverticlum at the level of the pelvic urethras.
Expression patterns of Fgf8 and Shh in the developing external genitalia of Suncus murinus.
The results indicate that the mechanism of GT formation regulated by the FGF and SHH signalling pathways is widely conserved in mammals and is similar to that observed in the developing mouse GT.
Development of human male and female urogenital tracts.
Development of the urinary system in guinea pig females (Cavia porcellus)
The objective of this work was to demonstrate the process of formation and differentiation of urinary organs in females of the species in the prenatal period and to identify the organs of guinea pig females that have been described in domestic animals.
Flutamide-induced hypospadias in rats: A critical assessment.


Development of the external genitalia: perspectives from the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).
Variation in ovarian morphology in four species of New World moles with a peniform clitoris.
Comparisons with North American moles indicated that loss of the bipolar ovarian morphology is a derived trait in Scapanus, and conclusively demonstrates that masculinization of the external genitalia in female moles can develop in the presence or absence of 'ovotestes'.
External genital morphology of the ring‐tailed lemur (Lemur catta): Females are naturally “masculinized”
Those of the female ring‐tailed lemur are characterized as moderately “masculinized,” highlighting certain morphological similarities and differences between ring‐tails lemurs and the most male‐like of female mammals, the spotted hyena, and calling attention to a potential hormonal mechanism of “Masculinization” in female lemur development.
New Insights on the Morphology of Adult Mouse Penis1
Novel paired erectile bodies, the male urogenital mating protuberance (MUMP), and the urethral meatus are discovered and quantified by morphometric analysis to provide accurate morphological end points of sex differentiation of mouse penis.
The Ontogeny of the Urogenital System of the Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta Erxleben)1
It is concluded that gross masculinization of phallic size and shape of male and female fetuses is androgen-independent, but that sexual dimorphism of internal phallic structure is dependent on fetal testicular androgens acting via AR in the relevant cells/tissues.
Urogenital system of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta Erxleben): A functional histological study
It is evident that the unusual sexual behaviors of the male and female spotted hyenas are facilitated by unique structural modifications of the relevant organs.
Sonic hedgehog signaling from the urethral epithelium controls external genital development.
It is demonstrated that Shh from the urethral epithelium is required for outgrowth, patterning, and cell survival in the developing external genitalia in mice with a targeted deletion of Shh.
Anatomical studies of the mouse genital tubercle.
The functional and developmental anatomy of the mouse genital tubercle provides a useful model to study normal and abnormal human urethral development.