Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction

@article{Puppo2013AnatomyAP,
  title={Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction},
  author={Vincenzo Puppo},
  journal={Clinical Anatomy},
  year={2013},
  volume={26}
}
  • V. Puppo
  • Published 2013
  • Medicine
  • Clinical Anatomy
This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause “vaginal” orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles… Expand
Anatomy of sex: Revision of the new anatomical terms used for the clitoris and the female orgasm by sexologists
TLDR
The anatomy of the clitoris and the female orgasm are described in textbooks, but some researchers have proposed a new anatomical terminology for the sexual response in women that has no scientific basis. Expand
Anatomy of the clitoris and the female sexual response
TLDR
The clitoris is the center for orgasmic response and is embryologically homologous to the male penis, and it is necessary to understand the intricate anatomy of the organ to assess the data in this regard. Expand
Relationship of orgasm with measurable dimensions of clitoris and visibility of clitoral glans
TLDR
The fact that the relationship between measurable dimensions of clitoris, length of prepuce and orgasm cannot be shown suggests that clitoral glans visibility is more important than clitoral size for sexual stimulation. Expand
A Comprehensive Review of the Clitoris and Its Role in Female Sexual Function.
TLDR
The intricate neurovasculature and multiplanar design of the clitoris contribute to its role in female sexual pleasure and is possibly the most critical organ for female sexual health. Expand
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The physiology of ejaculation and orgasm is not impaired in premature ejaculation: it is not a disease, and non‐coital sexual acts after male ejaculation can be used to produce orgasm in women. Expand
Anatomical study of the clitoris and its implications on female genital mutilation and surgical repair.
TLDR
The anatomical characteristics of the dorsal nerve and artery of the clitoris and the mobility of the genitalia neurovascular flap for reconstruction post clitoridectomy were described to restore the anatomic position of the glans clitoris while preserving and potentially restoring clitoral function in patients with female genital mutilation. Expand
Re: K. Hatzimouratidis, I. Eardley, F. Giuliano, et al. Guidelines on Male Sexual Dysfunction: Erectile Dysfunction and Premature Ejaculation. The Netherlands: European Association of Urology; 2015. http://uroweb.org/guideline/male-sexual-dysfunction/.
TLDR
Urologists, sexologists, and sexual medicine experts must acknowledge that PE is really normal in adolescent males, especially during their first sexual encounters, and two specific methods called the ‘stop-start’ method and the ’squeeze’ technique that helps recondition the ejaculatory reflex during masturbation. Expand
Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success?
TLDR
Orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation, and while these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these. Expand
Can Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery Be Considered or Classified as Female Genital Mutilation Type IV?
  • V. Puppo
  • Medicine
  • Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
  • 2013
TLDR
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reveals that there have been an increasing number of practitioners offering various types of vaginal surgeries marketed as ways to enhance appearance or sexual gratification, and there are ethical issues associated with the marketing of these procedures and the national franchising in this field. Expand
Female genital mutilation and cutting: An anatomical review and alternative rites
The World Health Organization reports that more than 200 million women currently alive have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) worldwide, and three million girls continue toExpand
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  • V. Puppo
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The female orgasm should be a normal phase of the sexual response cycle, which is possible by all healthy women with effective sexual stimulation, and should be defined with Grafenberg's name. Expand
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TLDR
The suspensory ligament of clitoris consistently displayed two components: a superficial fibro‐fatty structure extending from a broad base within the mons pubis to converge on the body of the clitoris and extending into the labia majora; in addition there is a deep component with a narrow origin on the symphysis pubis extending to the body and the bulbs of the vagina. Expand
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TLDR
The measurement of the space within the anterior vaginal wall by ultrasonography is a simple tool to explore anatomical variability of the human clitoris-urethrovaginal complex, also known as the G-spot, which can be correlated to the ability to experience the vaginally activated orgasm. Expand
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Clitoral phimosis, a previously undiagnosed physical finding, was identified in 22% of the women and the clinical significance of this finding, in particular the relation to diminished sensitivity and impaired orgasmic capability, is unclear. Expand
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PURPOSE We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibularExpand
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TLDR
It is suggested that the special sensitivity of the lower anterior vaginal wall could be explained by pressure and movement of clitoris' root during a vaginal penetration and subsequent perineal contraction. Expand
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