Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction

  title={Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction},
  author={Vincenzo Puppo},
  journal={Clinical Anatomy},
  • V. Puppo
  • Published 1 January 2013
  • Medicine
  • Clinical Anatomy
This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause “vaginal” orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles… 

Anatomy of sex: Revision of the new anatomical terms used for the clitoris and the female orgasm by sexologists

The anatomy of the clitoris and the female orgasm are described in textbooks, but some researchers have proposed a new anatomical terminology for the sexual response in women that has no scientific basis.

Anatomy of the clitoris and the female sexual response

The clitoris is the center for orgasmic response and is embryologically homologous to the male penis, and it is necessary to understand the intricate anatomy of the organ to assess the data in this regard.

The complexity of female orgasm and ejaculation.

The female orgasm is influenced by many aspects such as communication, emotional intimacy, long-standing relationship, adequate body image and self-esteem, proper touching and knowledge of the female body, regular masturbation, male sexual performance, male and female fertility, chronic pain, and capacity to engage in new sexual acts.

Relationship of orgasm with measurable dimensions of clitoris and visibility of clitoral glans

The fact that the relationship between measurable dimensions of clitoris, length of prepuce and orgasm cannot be shown suggests that clitoral glans visibility is more important than clitoral size for sexual stimulation.

A Comprehensive Review of the Clitoris and Its Role in Female Sexual Function.

The intricate neurovasculature and multiplanar design of the clitoris contribute to its role in female sexual pleasure and is possibly the most critical organ for female sexual health.

Comprehensive review of the anatomy and physiology of male ejaculation: Premature ejaculation is not a disease

The physiology of ejaculation and orgasm is not impaired in premature ejaculation: it is not a disease, and non‐coital sexual acts after male ejaculation can be used to produce orgasm in women.

Anatomical study of the clitoris and its implications on female genital mutilation and surgical repair.

Anatomic variation and orgasm: Could variations in anatomy explain differences in orgasmic success?

Orgasms are complex phenomena involving psychological, physiological, and anatomic variation, and while these variations predispose people to certain sexual function, future research should explore how to surgically or medically alter these.

Can Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery Be Considered or Classified as Female Genital Mutilation Type IV?

  • V. Puppo
  • Medicine
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
  • 2013
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reveals that there have been an increasing number of practitioners offering various types of vaginal surgeries marketed as ways to enhance appearance or sexual gratification, and there are ethical issues associated with the marketing of these procedures and the national franchising in this field.



Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health.

  • V. Puppo
  • Medicine
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • 2011

Anatomy of the Clitoris: Revision and Clarifications about the Anatomical Terms for the Clitoris Proposed (without Scientific Bases) by Helen O'Connell, Emmanuele Jannini, and Odile Buisson

  • V. Puppo
  • Medicine
    ISRN obstetrics and gynecology
  • 2011
This paper is a revision of the anatomical terms proposed by Helen O'Connell, Emmanuele Jannini, and Odile Buisson and uses terms used by some sexologists but not accepted or shared by experts in human anatomy.

The suspensory ligament of the clitoris: Connective tissue supports of the erectile tissues of the female urogenital region

The suspensory ligament of clitoris consistently displayed two components: a superficial fibro‐fatty structure extending from a broad base within the mons pubis to converge on the body of the clitoris and extending into the labia majora; in addition there is a deep component with a narrow origin on the symphysis pubis extending to the body and the bulbs of the vagina.

Measurement of the thickness of the urethrovaginal space in women with or without vaginal orgasm.

The measurement of the space within the anterior vaginal wall by ultrasonography is a simple tool to explore anatomical variability of the human clitoris-urethrovaginal complex, also known as the G-spot, which can be correlated to the ability to experience the vaginally activated orgasm.

The Prevalence of Phimosis of the Clitoris in Women Presenting to the Sexual Dysfunction Clinic: Lack of Correlation to Disorders of Desire, Arousal and Orgasm

Clitoral phimosis, a previously undiagnosed physical finding, was identified in 22% of the women and the clinical significance of this finding, in particular the relation to diminished sensitivity and impaired orgasmic capability, is unclear.

Anatomy of the clitoris.

PURPOSE We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibular

The neurophysiology of the sexual cycle.

A group of oxytocinergic neurons projecting to extra-hypothalamic brain areas, including the spinal cord, have been identified, which facilitate erectile function and copulation when activated and reduce both when inhibited.

The clitoral complex: a dynamic sonographic study.

It is suggested that the special sensitivity of the lower anterior vaginal wall could be explained by pressure and movement of clitoris' root during a vaginal penetration and subsequent perineal contraction.