Anatomy and physiology of eustachian tube and middle ear related to otitis media.

Abstract

The middle ear is part of a functional system composed of the nasopharynx and the eustachian tube (anteriorly) and the mastoid air cells (posteriorly). The only active muscle that opens the eustachian tube is the tensor veli palatini, which promotes ventilation of the middle ear. The eustachian tube also functions to protect the middle ear from excessive… (More)

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