Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus

@article{Jenkinson2009AnatomyPA,
  title={Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus},
  author={Ned Jenkinson and D. Nandi and K. A. Muthusamy and Nicola J. Ray and Ralph Gregory and John F. Stein and Tipu Z. Aziz},
  journal={Movement Disorders},
  year={2009},
  volume={24}
}
The pedunculopontine nucleus is composed of cholinergic and non‐cholinergic neurones and is located in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum. Evidence suggests that the nucleus plays a role in the production and control of movement. The nucleus has dense interconnections with the basal ganglia, as well as with other areas of the brain associated with motor control. Electrical stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus in the decerebrate cat or rat produces organized locomotor movements… 

Pedunculopontine nucleus

The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus is a neurochemically and functionally heterogeneous structure that occupies a strategic position in the dorsal tegmentum of the midbrain and upper pons and participates in control of locomotion and muscle tone in Parkinson disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes.

The Cellular Diversity of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus: Relevance to Behavior in Health and Aspects of Parkinson’s Disease

Current knowledge of the neurochemical identity and topographical distribution of neurons within the pedunculopontine nucleus of both humans and experimental animals are reviewed, focusing on studies that used neuronally selective targeting strategies to ascertain how the neuro chemical heterogeneity of the PPN relates to its diverse functions in relation to movement and cognitive processes.

Participation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in arousal-demanding functions

Data is discussed that suggest that in addition to operating via thalamic nuclei, the PPTg may also operate by activating cerebellaruclei, especially the dentate nucleus, in such a way that an intense and diffuse activation of the cerebral cortex may be achieved.

Effect of Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation on Pedunculopontine Nucleus Neural Activity

It is found that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus at 60 Hz produces some entrainment of pedunculopontine nucleus neuronal firing and a shift of subthalic nucleus firing patterns to more tonic and random patterns, which are consistent with the effects of deep brain stimulation on neuronal activity in the subhalamic nucleus and globus pallidus internus.

Electrophysiological and Neurochemical Considerations of Distinct Neuronal Populations in the Rat Pedunculopontine Nucleus and Their Responsiveness Following 6-Hydroxydopamine Lesions

Findings revealed that the changes in the firing characteristics of neurons in PPN in hemi-parkinsonism rats are closely associated with damaged neuronal morphology, which would make contributions to the divergence of dysfunctions in Parkinsonism.

Neurophysiological evaluation of the pedunculopontine nucleus in humans

It is demonstrated that the functional connections between PPTg and cortex, basal ganglia, brainstem network involved in sleep/wake control, and spinal cord can be explored in vivo and provided useful insights about the physiology of this nucleus and pathophysiology of PD.

Núcleo pedúnculo pontino, y su relación con la fisiopatología de la Enfermedad de Parkinson

The clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease are explained, since dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus, and the deep brain stimulation of the nucleus is analyzed as part of the therapy of PD.
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