Anatomy, pathophysiology, and biomechanics of shoulder instability.

  title={Anatomy, pathophysiology, and biomechanics of shoulder instability.},
  author={William C. Doukas and Kevin P. Speer},
  journal={The Orthopedic clinics of North America},
  volume={32 3},
  pages={381-91, vii}
Instability in the athlete presents a unique challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. A spectrum of both static and dynamic pathophysiology, as well as gross and microscopic histopathology, contribute to this complex clinical continuum. Biomechanical studies of the shoulder and ligament cutting studies in recent years have generated a more precise understanding of the individual contributions of the various ligaments and capsular regions to shoulder instability. An understanding of the underlying… CONTINUE READING

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