Anatomically diverse butterfly scales all produce structural colours by coherent scattering

@article{Prum2006AnatomicallyDB,
  title={Anatomically diverse butterfly scales all produce structural colours by coherent scattering},
  author={Richard O. Prum and Tim Quinn and Rodolfo H. Torres},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  year={2006},
  volume={209},
  pages={748 - 765}
}
SUMMARY The structural colours of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been attributed to a diversity of physical mechanisms, including multilayer interference, diffraction, Bragg scattering, Tyndall scattering and Rayleigh scattering. We used fibre optic spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 2D Fourier analysis to investigate the physical mechanisms of structural colour production in twelve lepidopteran species from four families, representing all of the previously… 
Spectrally tuned structural and pigmentary coloration of birdwing butterfly wing scales
TLDR
This work investigates the birdwing butterflies, Ornithoptera, the largest butterflies of the world, together forming a small genus in the butterfly family Papilionidae, and finds that the various mechanisms of scale coloration of the different birdwing species strongly correlate with the taxonomical distribution of Ornithsoptera species.
Brilliant angle-independent structural colours preserved in weevil scales from the Swiss Pleistocene
TLDR
Three-dimensional photonic nanostructures preserved in brightly coloured scales of two weevils, belonging to the genus Phyllobius or Polydrusus, from the Pleistocene of Switzerland are reported and it is revealed that the subfossil scales possess a single-diamond photonic crystal nanostructure.
Measuring and modelling optical scattering and the colour quality of white pierid butterfly scales.
TLDR
This work compared the wing scale morphology of the pierid butterfly Pieris rapae (Small White) to the reflectance spectra from its wings and observed that light scatter from these beads does not account for all of the broadband light scatter observed from the wings.
Convergent Evolution of Broadband Reflectors Underlies Metallic Coloration in Butterflies
Butterfly wings often display structural colors, which are the result of light reflection from chitinous nanostructures that adorn the wing scales. Amongst these structural colors are broadband
Structural coloration in nature
Nature's color has three main sources: pigments, structural colors and bioluminescence. Structural color is a special one, which is the color produced by micro- or nano-structures, and is bright and
Fourier Blues: Structural Coloration of Biological Tissues
TLDR
The focus of this article is, in particular, on a truly fascinating manifestation of Fourier analysis and synthesis in nature, which provides a way to explain coloration phenomena that are of interest in behavioral and evolutionary biology.
Orientation-Dependent Reflection of Structurally Coloured Butterflies
TLDR
The results show that the technique employed here can be used to quickly evaluate the orientation-dependence of the reflection and hence provide important input for bio-inspired applications, e.g., to identify whether the respective structure is suitable as a template for nano-imprinting techniques.
Wing scale ultrastructure underlying convergent and divergent iridescent colours in mimetic Heliconius butterflies
TLDR
It is found that iridescent structural colour is not closely matched between co-mimetic species, and differences appear less pronounced in models of Heliconius vision than models of avian vision, suggesting that they are not driven by selection to avoid heterospecific courtship by co- mimics.
Structural Colours in Biology : Scientific Basis and Bioinspired Technological Applications
Beetles whiter than white, insects with metallic colours and butterflies with coloured wings that seem to shine by themselves, even in low light conditions – structural colours are omnipresent in
Developmental, cellular, and biochemical basis of transparency in clearwing butterflies.
TLDR
It is found that during early wing development, scale precursor cell density is reduced in transparent regions, and cytoskeletal organization during scale growth differs between thin, bristle-like scale morphologies within transparent regions and flat, round scale Morphologies within opaque regions.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 65 REFERENCES
Structural colouration of avian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays
TLDR
Investigation of the colour, anatomy, nanostructure and biophysics of structurally coloured skin, ramphotheca and podotheca from 31 species of birds from 17 families in 10 orders from across Aves finds some yellow and orange skin colours are produced with a combination of structural and pigmentary mechanisms.
Structural colouration of mammalian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays
TLDR
The Fourier power spectra and the observed reflectance spectra falsify assumptions and predictions of the incoherent, Rayleigh scattering hypothesis and reveal a substantial nanostructure of the appropriate spatial frequency to produce the observed blue hues by coherent scattering alone.
Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales
Brilliant iridescent colouring in male butterflies enables long–range conspecific communication and it has long been accepted that microstructures, rather than pigments, are responsible for this
Blue integumentary structural colours in dragonflies (Odonata) are not produced by incoherent Tyndall scattering
TLDR
Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of the TEM images of the colour-producing arrays reveals ring-shaped distributions of Fourier power at intermediate spatial frequencies, documenting a quasiordered nanostructure and falsify the assumption of spatial independence of scatterers that is required for incoherent scattering.
Coherent light scattering by nanostructured collagen arrays in the caruncles of the malagasy asities (Eurylaimidae: aves)
TLDR
Results confirm that the nanostructure of the collagen arrays determines the colours that are coherently scattered by these tissues, and all the tissues are substantially nanostructured at the appropriate spatial scale to scatter visible light coherently.
COHERENT SCATTERING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT BY AVIAN FEATHER BARBS
TLDR
Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of transmission electron micrographs of the medullary keratin of UV-colored feather barbs of the Blue Whistling Thrush demonstrates that the Myiophonus medullaries keratin is ordered at the appropriately nanoscale to produce the observed UV hues by coherent scattering.
Limited-view iridescence in the butterfly Ancyluris meliboeus
TLDR
The purpose of the high-contrast ventral wing visibility associated with A. meliboeus is at-rest signalling; this is distinct from the dorsal wing visibility of other species such as those of the genus Morpho, the function of which is largely for in-flight signalling.
Exaggeration and suppression of iridescence: the evolution of two-dimensional butterfly structural colours
TLDR
This study optically characterize examples of all three types of multi-layer structure, as found in 10 species, and considers the phylogeny of the butterflies, and is able to relate the optical properties of the structures to their evolutionary development.
Mechanisms of structural colour in the Morpho butterfly: cooperation of regularity and irregularity in an iridescent scale
TLDR
Using a simple model, it is shown that the combined action of interference and diffraction is essential for the structural colour of the Morpho butterfly.
Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of the spongy medullary keratin of structurally coloured feather barbs
TLDR
Two–dimensional (2D) discrete Fourier analyses of the spatial variation in refractive index of the spongy medullary keratin from four different colours of structurally coloured feather barbs from three species of bird indicate that the spongey medully keratin is a nanostructured tissue that functions as an array of coherent scatterers.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...