Anatomical interrelation between the phrenic nerve and the internal mammary artery as seen by the surgeon.

@article{Setina1993AnatomicalIB,
  title={Anatomical interrelation between the phrenic nerve and the internal mammary artery as seen by the surgeon.},
  author={M Setina and Stěp{\'a}n {\vC}ern{\'y} and Milo{\vs} Grim and Jan Pirk},
  journal={The Journal of cardiovascular surgery},
  year={1993},
  volume={34 6},
  pages={499-502}
}
Paresis of the diaphragm (especially left-side paresis) is a relatively frequent finding following cardiac surgery. While, usually, it is a rather benign condition, in exceptional cases it may lead to severe impairment to death of the patient. The supposed causes of damage to the phrenic nerve include: local myocardial cooling by ice slush; opening of the pleural cavity in connection with local cooling; cross clamp length; total hypothermia; central venous cannulation; traction-related damage… CONTINUE READING

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