Anatomical, cytogenetic and behavioural studies of freemartin ewes

  title={Anatomical, cytogenetic and behavioural studies of freemartin ewes},
  author={K. C. Smith and Timothy J. Parkinson and Susan E. Long and Frances J. Barr},
  journal={Veterinary Record},
  pages={574 - 578}
The external phenotype and reproductive behaviour of 21 freemartin sheep and two male pseudohermaphrodite sheep were recorded with the aim of identifying any characteristics which might be used to predict a failure to breed. The size and shape of the vulva and clitoris, the length of the vagina, the size of the teats, the presence or absence of inguinal gonads, and the ultrasonographic characteristics of the inguinal gonads were recorded. A subjective assessment of the masculinity of each… 
Clinical and cytogenetic studies in intersex ewes
Nine Sarda x Lacaune ewes with intersexual characteristics and an infertility condition at the reproductive anamnesis were analysed and the diagnosis of freemartinism was confirmed for seven out of the nine subjects.
Abnormal position of lymph nodes in a freemartin sheep.
This is the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, that a case has been reported where lymph nodes have been found inside the scrotal sacs, and it is possible that these were the inguinal lymph nodes, trapped inside theScrotum during fetal growth and development.
Morphological, histological and histochemical studies of the gonads of ovine freemartins
The gonads of the male-type freemartins stained immunocytochemically for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and histochemicalically for alkaline phosphatase (AP) in a similar way to, but more extensively and intensely than, the gonad of normal rams, and the staining was confined to interstitial cell-like structures.
The freemartin syndrome: an update.
  • A. Padula
  • Biology
    Animal reproduction science
  • 2005
Freemartinism: Three Cases in Goats
A molecular and cytogenetic analysis of three cases of caprine freemartinism in goats revealed that all three animals had the SRY gene linked with the Y chromosome, which can create a basis for wider characterisation of this syndrome in the domestic goat.
Masculinization of the Distal Tubular and External Genitalia in Female Sheep With Prenatal Androgen Exposure
Results show that prenatal exposure of female sheep to exogenous androgens results in masculinization of the tubular and external genitalia.
Ten of 11 morphologically abnormal individuals may possess no genuine male-specific DNA and nongenetic mechanisms such as maternal tumors, freemartinism, or endocrinological effects of environmental contaminants may also influence the development of the female pseudohermaphrodite phenotype in Nunavut polar bears.
Classical and Molecular Cytogenetics of Disorders of Sex Development in Domestic Animals
An overview of the biology of mammalian sex development as a scientific background for better understanding the body of knowledge of the clinical cytogenetics of disorders of sex development in domestic animals is presented.
Validation of fetal microchimerism after pregnancy in the ovine using qPCR.
Fetal microchimerism in soft maternal tissues is possible in sheep and may remain after pregnancy has ended, and XY chimerism in maternal tissues of the ewe and its potential role in ovine physiology is suggested.


Cattle twins and freemartin diagnosis
The clinical signs of the freemartin at age three to six weeks are the absence of the external os, and a vagina length of 5 inches (12 cm) or less, and the veterinary surgeon is encouraged to make the diagnosis on these clinical signs alone.
The incidence of freemartinism in sheep.
  • A. Dain
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of reproduction and fertility
  • 1971
The freemartin heifer, a sterile female twin to a bull calf, has been known to cattle farmers for centuries, but it was uncertain whether or not the condition occurred in sheep.
XX/XY chromosomal chimerism in infertile sheep of the Cambridge breed
The Cambridge sheep has been developed since the mid 1960s as a high-fecundity breed from crosses between the Finnish Landrace and various British breeds, notably the Clun Forest. Although the
Development and diagnosis of freemartinism in cattle
Susan is currently senior lecturer with responsibilities for teaching small animal management, genetics and cytogenetics, and reproduction and development and diagnosis of freemrartinism in cattle.
[Absence of correlation between XX-XY chimerism in the liver and the first signs of freemartinism in the calf fetus].
XX/XY chimerism has been studied in the liver of 22 presumptive freemartin fetuses and in 12 male cotwins of multiple pregnancies, at an age of 39 to 62 days post-insemination, and there is no correlation between the percentage of XY cells and the degree of inhibition of the ovaries or of the Mullerian ducts.
Some pathological conditions of the reproductive tract of the ewe
  • S. Long
  • Medicine
    Veterinary Record
  • 1980
The reproductive tracts of 276 ewes from six breeds or crosses were examined and the first case of ovarian cystadenoma in sheep was reported.
Intersexuality in a Charolais heifer
If parasite naive animals are used, the difference in time of appearance of nematode eggs or larvae in the faeces can be taken as an approximation of the duration of persistent activity.
B-mode real time ultrasonographic imaging of the testis and epididymis of sheep and goats
Ten male goats and five rams were examined from 11 and 15 weeks of age, respectively, for six months to study the ultrasonic appearance of normal testes and epididymides before and after puberty.
Plasma progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone concentrations in freemartin heifers.
The mean androstenedione concentration in the freemartins was significantly lower than the mean of 58 to 60 pg/ml for normal 10- to 12-month-old heifers, and the mean testosterone concentration had risen significantly at 24 months of age.