The remarkable success of radiofrequency ablation in recent decades in curing atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardias has intensified efforts to provide a solid theoretical basis for understanding the mechanisms of atrioventricular transmission. These efforts, which were made by both anatomists and electrophysiologists, frequently resulted in seemingly controversial observations. Quantitatively and qualitatively, our understanding of the mysteries of propagation through the inhomogeneous and extremely complex atrioventricular conduction axis is much deeper than it was at the beginning of the past century. We must go back to the initial sources, nonetheless, in an attempt to provide a common ground for evaluating the morphological and electrophysiological principles of junctional arrhythmias. In this review, we provide an account of the initial descriptions, which still provide an appropriate foundation for interpreting recent electrophysiological findings.