Anatomic Variation of Facial Vein in Carotid-Cavernous Fistula and Trans-Facial Vein Embolization.


OBJECTIVE Trans-facial vein (FV) embolization via the internal jugular vein is an alternative approach to embolization of carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs). The purpose of this study is to report the anatomic variation of FVs and our experience of trans-FV embolization of CCFs. METHODS Over 6 years, 26 patients (12 men and 14 women; age range 27-72 years… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2015.02.033