Analyzing the Environmental Benefits of Industrial Symbiosis

@article{Sokka2011AnalyzingTE,
  title={Analyzing the Environmental Benefits of Industrial Symbiosis},
  author={Laura I. Sokka and Suvi Lehtoranta and Ari Nissinen and Matti Melanen},
  journal={Journal of Industrial Ecology},
  year={2011},
  volume={15}
}
Studies of industrial symbiosis (IS) focus on the physical flows of materials and energy in local industrial systems. In an ideal IS, waste material and energy are shared or exchanged among the actors of the system, thereby reducing the consumption of virgin material and energy inputs, and likewise the generation of waste and emissions. In this study, the environmental impacts of an industrial ecosystem centered around a pulp and paper mill and operating as an IS are analyzed using life cycle… 
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The application of industrial symbiosis to chemical processes is made possible by considering physical by-products as new sources in spite of potential waste. The by-product acts as a substitution of
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TLDR
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