Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault

  title={Analytical developments in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault},
  author={Adam Negrusz and Robert E. Gaensslen},
  journal={Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry},
This paper gives a general overview of the drug-facilitated sexual assault phenomenon. Sexual assault perpetrated on both women and men, while incapacitated by so-called date-rape drugs, recently became the focus of many investigations conducted by law enforcement agencies in the US throughout the 1990s; an alarming increase in reports of this crime as well as in the number of scientific publications on drug-facilitated sexual assault has been observed. The list of drugs reportedly associated… 

Medical and Toxicological Aspects of Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault

Implementation of preventative measures such as not drinking from open containers, avoiding alcohol intoxication in public settings, and monitoring for signs of unexpected intoxication among friends should decrease the occurrence of drug-facilitated sexual assault.

Forensic toxicology in drug-facilitated sexual assault

A major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed.

Toxicological investigation of drug‐facilitated sexual assaults

Forensic doctors should entertain the possibility of poisoning in any presentation involving amnesia, and Forensic toxicological laboratories should develop sensitive and specific methods to assure a low threshold of detection of the drugs.

Retrospective drug detection in cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault: challenges and perspectives for the forensic toxicologist.

This review draws attention to this burgeoning crime and focuses on the unique challenges DFSA cases present in terms of evidential analysis, and highlights the use of cutting-edge technologies such as ultra-HPLC and theUse of alternative matrices for addressing the problem of improved retrospective drug detection.

Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Provoked by the Victim's Religious Beliefs: A Case Report

The aim of this article is to emphasize the fact that a sexual assault can take place not only between 2 strangers, but also within a happily married couple, and to remind doctors that any case of sexual assault must be examined toxicologically, for a better and thorough investigation.

Hair analysis of drugs involved in drug-facilitated sexual assault and detection of zolpidem in a suspected case

A specific LC-MS/MS protocol for determining benzodiazepines and hypnotics at low concentration in hair specimens was developed and validated in order to target the allegedly administered drugs on a chronological basis.

Drugs Used in Sexual Assaults: Features and Toxicological Investigations

A general approach to date-rape drugs used in sexual assault is presented, which shows that most of these drugs are colorless, odorless and highly soluble in alcohol or other beverages quickly and rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration.

Criminal poisoning: drug-facilitated sexual assault.




Prevalence of drugs used in cases of alleged sexual assault.

This study indicates that the prevalence of ethanol is very high, followed by cannabinoids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, amphetamines, and GHB in alleged sexual assault cases, and suggests the need to test for a range of drugs in these cases.

The behavioral and cognitive effects of two benzodiazepines associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault.

Examination of the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral effects of flunitrazepam and clonazepam found that FN significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure 4 h post drug ingestion with diastolics remaining low at 6 h and CLO affected memory and attention 4 h following ingestion.

A 2-year longitudinal analysis of the relationships between violent assault and substance use in women.

Findings support a vicious cycle relationship in which substance use increases risk of future assault and assault increasesrisk of subsequent substance use, for illicit drug use.

Abuse of flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) and other benzodiazepines in Austin and south Texas.

The abuse of sedative-hypnotics in southeast Texas involves several benzodiazepines and is not limited to flunitrazepam, and a significant proportion of the subjects reported that continued use was unappealing to them.

Benzodiazepines in Miami-Dade County, Florida driving under the influence (DUI) cases (1995-1998) with emphasis on Rohypnol: GC-MS confirmation, patterns of use, psychomotor impairment, and results of Florida legislation.

A recent rise in clonazepam cases coincides with the decrease in flunitrazepam confirmation and may indicate a new trend in the abuse of benzodiazepines in South Florida.

Deaths Involving the Benzodiazepine Flunitrazepam

The observations in these cases suggest that flunitrazepam may cause death in the absence of other drugs or significant disease, and the presence of ethanol reduces the amount of flunitazepam needed to cause death.

Determination of chronic flunitrazepam abuse by hair analysis using GC-MS-NCI.

The judge in charge of the investigation of the stolen pharmaceuticals asked the laboratory to determine if the subject was a chronic user of flunitrazepam, leading to the development of a procedure for the detection of this benzodiazepine in human hair.

Highly sensitive micro-plate enzyme immunoassay screening and NCI-GC-MS confirmation of flunitrazepam and its major metabolite 7-aminoflunitrazepam in hair.

To determine if a commercially available micro-plate enzyme immunoassay system was sufficiently sensitive for the routine screening of 7-AFN in hair by the development of extraction procedures and optimization of the immunoASSay kit, a replicate analysis of controls was performed to establish inter- and intraday variabilities.

Quantitation of clonazepam and its major metabolite 7-aminoclonazepam in hair.

The study indicates that it is possible to detect 7-ACLO after a single dose of CLO as in the typical date-rape scenarios and has potential application to alleged drug-facilitated rape cases.

Deposition of 7-aminoflunitrazepam and flunitrazepam in hair after a single dose of Rohypnol.

To determine whether flunitrazepam and its major metabolite 7-aminoflunitsepam could be detected in hair collected from ten healthy volunteers after receiving a single 2 mg dose of Rohypnol using solid phase extraction and NCI-GC-MS, and to determine the best time interval for hair collection from a victim of drug-facilitated sexual assault, is studied.